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70 Cards in this Set

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What electrolyte imbalance can metabolic alkalosis cause?
Hypokalemia
What is the normal serum potassium level?
3.5 - 5.3 mEq/L
What electrolyte imbalance can cause paralytic illeus?
Hypokalemia
What electrolyte imbalance can lead to respiratory arrest?
Hypokalemia, flacid paralysis leads to respiratory arrest. Hypermagnesmia can lead to resp arrest by neuromuscular blockade. Hpophosphatemia can lead to resp. arrest because of lack of ATP for respiratory muscles.
What electrolyte imbalance causes flattened T waves?
Hypokalemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by administration of tap water enemas?
Hyponatremia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by administration of too much D5W?
Hyponatremia
What electrolyte imbalance can CHF lead to?
Hyponatremia
What electrolyte imbalance can oat cell carcinoma lead to?
Hyponatremia
What electrolyte imbalance causes muscle twitching?
Hyponatremia, hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesmia. Also hyperphosphatemia (which causes hypocalcemia).
What is electrolyte imbalance can be helped by administering Lithium or Phenytoin?
Hyponatremia
What is the normal serum sodium level?
135 - 145 mEq/L
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by hemolysis?
Hyperkalemia, because K+ shifts out of cells
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by metabolic acidosis?
Hyperkalemia
What electrolyte imbalance first causes muscle hyper excitability but leads to paralysis?
Hyperkalemia
What electrolyte imbalance leads to an EKG with a tall, tented T wave?
Hyperkalemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be treated using sodium polystyrene (Kayexalate)?
Hyperkalemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be treated using insulin, hypertonic dextrose, and sodium bicarbonate?
Hyperkalemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by decreased thirst mechanism?
Hypernatremia
What electrolyte imbalance can diabetes insipidus cause?
Hypernatremia
What electrolyte imbalance causes low grade fever and dry mucous membranes?
Hypernatremia
What electrolyte imbalance causes thirst?
Hypernatremia
What electrolyte imbalance can be treated by using Vasopressin or Desmopressin?
Hypernatremia
What serum calcium level causes hypocalcemia?
Less than 4.5 mEq/L
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by administering citrated blood?
Hypocalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by vitamin D deficiency?
Hypocalcemia (maybe hypophosphatemia because vitamin D helps with phosphate absorption).
What electrolyte imbalance causes tetany, muscle spasms, and tingling of the finger?
Hypocalcemia and hyperphospatemia (because it causes hypocalcemia)
What electrolyte imbalance causes positive Chovstek's sign?
Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesmia, and hyperphosphatemia.
What electrolyte imbalance causes positive Trousseau's sign?
Hypocalcemia, hypomagnesmia, and hyperphophatemia.
What IV replacement thearpy can be used to treat hypocalcemia?
10% calcium gluconate or calcium chloride by slow IVP
What kind of IV therapy can be used to treat hypokalemia?
DILUTED potassium: Peripheral: 20-40 mEq (no more than 60 mEq) at 10 mEq/h - Central: 140 mEq at 10-20 mEq/h
What electrolyte imbalance is treated using 3% NaCl? How fast can it be infused?
Hyponatremia. No faster than 50 cc hour
What electrolyte imbalance is caused by an increase in parathyroid hormone?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance is caused by multiple myeloma?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance is caused by cancer with bone metastses?
Hypercalcemia
What is the normal serum Calcium level?
4.5 -5.5 mEq/L
What electrolyte imbalance causes kidney stones?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance caused hypotonia (loss of muscle tone)?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance causes bone fractures?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance causes constipation?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be treated using steriods, biophosphates, and phosphate salts?
Hypercalcemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be treated using steroids?
Hypercalcemia, because steroids block calcium absorption.
What electrolyte imbalance can cause paralytic illeus and abdominal distention?
Hypokalemia
What electrolyte imbalances can be caused by alcohol withdrawl syndrome?
Hypomagnesmia and hypophosphatemia.
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by hypercalemia?
Hypomagnesmia
What electrolyte imbalance is characterized by tachycardia and hypotension?
Hypomagnesmia.
What electrolyte imbalance causes tremor and ataxia?
Hypomagnesmia
How is hypomagnesmia treated?
Oral- Magnesium oxide - IV- 1 gram magensium sulfate with 100 cc NS over 1 hour IVPB
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by untreated diabetic ketoacidosis?
Hypermagnemia
What electrolyte imbalance is characterized by loss of the patellar reflex?
Hypermagnesmia
What electrolyte imbalance causes hypotension and bradycardia?
Hypermagnesmia
What electrolyte imbalance causes neuromuscular blockade, resulting in respiratory paralysis?
Hypermagnesmia
What electrolyte imbalances can be treated with 10% calcium gluconate?
Hypocalcemia and Hypermagnesmia (causes Mg to shift into cell).
What is the normal serum magnesium level?
1.5 - 2.5 mEq/L
What is the normal serum phosphate level?
1.7 - 2.6 mEq/L
What electrolyte imbalances can be caused by glucose administration?
Hypokalemia and Hypophosphatemia (glucose pushes both potassium and phosphorus into the cell)
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by RESPIRATORY alkalosis?
Hypophosphatemia. Respiratory alkalosis forces phosphate into the cell.
What electrolyte imbalance can Amphogel, Basogel, and Mylanta cause?
Hypophosphatemia. They are anatacids that bind phosphates.
What are the primary causes for signs and symptoms of Hypophosphatemia?
Lack of ATP for energy and lack of 2,3 DPG for oxygen.
What electrolyte imbalance causes hyperventilation and chest pain?
Hypophosphatemia
How can hypophosphatemia be treated?
Oral- Neutrophos or fleet phosphosoda - IV- Sodium or potassium phosphate given slowly
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by chemotherapy?
Hyperphosphatemia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by the kidney's inability to create erithropoietin?
Hyperphosphatemia. Body compensates for lack of oxygen carrying RBC by making more 2,3 DPG
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by increased vitamin D?
Hyperphosphatemia (probably hypercalcemia too). Vitamin D increases phosphorus absorption.
What electrolyte imbalance causes s/s of hypocalemia?
Hyperphosphatemia. Calcium and phosphorus have an inverse relationship.
What electrolyte imbalance causes catarax, oliguriua, and papular eruptions?
Hyperphophatemia, due to calcification of soft tissue.
What electrolyte imbalance causes calcification of soft tissues?
Hyperphosphatemia
How can hyperphosphatemia be treated?
ORAL- Phosphate binding antacids including aluminum hydroxide (Amphogel) and aluminum chloride (Basaljel) - IV- NS for those with functional kidneys.
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by taking too much Mylanta, Maalox, Riopna, or Gelusil?
Hypermagnesmia
What electrolyte imbalance can be caused by feeding after starvation?
Hypophosphatemia. Because feeding can push phosphate into the cell