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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Eyelids
protect eye, filter out dust and dirt
Palpebral Fissure
open space between the eyelids
Limbus
border between cornea and sclera
Canthus
corner of the eye
Caruncle
- small fleshy mass at inner corner containing sebaceous glands
Tarsal Plates
- strips of connective tissue, contain the meibomian glands, secrete oily lubricating material
Conjunctiva
thin mucous membrane
Palpebral Conjunctiva
lines the lids
Bulbar Conjunctiva
overlays the eyeball with the white sclera showing through
Lacrimal Apparatus
provides constant irrigation
Puncta
absorb tear drainage (upper and lower lids at the inner canthus)
Extraocular Muscles
6 muscles attach to the eyeball and give the eye movement
Rectus Muscles
4 straight
Oblique Muscles
2 slanting
Internal Eye
sphere shaped, consist of 3 layers
Sclera
outer fibrous, protective white covering
Choroid
middle vascular, dark pigmented layer, delivers blood to the retina, prevents light from reflecting internally
components of choroid
a. Pupil
b. Lens - focus
c. Anterior Chamber
Anterior Chamber
continuous flow of fluid, serves to deliver, nutrients to surrounding tissues and drains metabolic waste
white dot on the eye (light reflexion)
corneal light reflex
Retina
visual receptive layer of the eye, light waves are changed into nerve impulses (includes optic disc, retinal vessels)
Optic Disc
retina fibers converge to form the optic nerve
Macula
receives and transduces light from the center of the visual field
Cultural Considerations of the eye
A. Palpebral fissures -narrowed in Asian population
B. Glaucoma - more prevalent in African American population, and more severe which can lead to blindness
History (Subjective)
Eyes
A. Vision difficulty, decreased visual acuity, blurring, blind spots.
B. Eye pain
C. Hx Strabismus, diplopia (double vision)
D. Redness and/or swelling
E. Watering and/or eye d/c
F. Past hx of eye problems (ie.injury or surgery to eye)
G. Hx glaucoma
H. Use of glasses and/or contacts
I. Self care behaviors (date of last eye exam)
J. Medications
Physical Exam/Assessment (Objective)
A. Snellen eye chart
B. Near Vision
C. Confrontation Test
D. Corneal Light Reflex (Hirschberg Test)
E. Cover Test
F. Diagnostic Positions Test (H) and 6 cardinal positions of gaze
G. Inspection of External Eye
H. Anterior Eyeball Structures
I. Ocular Fundus -ophthalmaloscope
3 kinds of conjunctivites
allergic: clear watery, tichy
viral, bacerial conjunctivites= yellow, white, green, thick, crusty, eyes matted shut.
differenctiated by color,
how to differentiate viral and bacterial conjunctivites
can't tell. so they just treat it.
Snellen eye chart
test visual acuity
(Normal 20/20
the top number (numerator) is the distance the person is standing from the eye chart, the bottom number (denominator) is the distance at which a normal eye could have read that line). What the normal eye could see from 100 feet away
. Near Vision
hand held vision card
Confrontation Test
test visual fields, except the temporal visual field (flapping fingers, both pt and nurse cover 1 eye opposite of each other)
Corneal Light Reflex (Hirschberg Test)
shine light from distance approx. 12-14" –> at same spot both eyes
Cover Test
test for lazy eye/strabismus
Diagnostic Positions Test (H) and 6 cardinal positions of gaze
EOM function and test for nystagmus – check to see if eyes move in parallel. “eyes move parallel, or EOM intact (means can follow finger)
Esotropia
inward turning of eye
Exotropia
outward turning of the eye
Strabismus
eyes crossed(pseudostabismus - eyes look crossed secondary to epicanthal folds - nl for young children)
Periorbital Edema
lids swollen, red, and puffy
Ptosis
drooping upper eyelid
Blepharitis
red scaly, flakey crusted lid margins (seborrhea) on lashes
Hordeolum - (stye)
infection of the hair follicle –
Chalazion
infection of internal glands of the eye
Dacryocyctitis/Dacryoadenitis
inflammation of the lacrimal sac/gland

(clogged tear drop due to stenosis) so u massage to open it, if it doesn’t open, they need to drain other way.
Conjunctivitis
- infection of the conjunctiva, “pink eye”
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage
secondary to increased intraocular pressure
Iritis
Iritis - increased redness around iris only, usually need immediate referral
Corneal Abrasion
scratch, irregular ridges, spot noted with fluorescein
Anisocoria
unequal pupil. Can have neurological disease
Mydriasis
dilated and fixed pupils
Miosis
constricted and fixed pupils
Myopia
nearsighted – can’t see far
Hyperopia
farsighted – u can’t see near
Diabetic Retinopathy
multiple microaneurysms or small red dots or dilations of
the vessels noted on the fundiscopic exam – ruptured vessels
cataracts – congenital
(black dot
cataract with aging
cloudy