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145 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Dietary Guidelines address issue of...
dietary balance
Food Guide Pyramid focuses on food choices for...
adequate diets
Variety of foods provide sufficient levels of calories and what?
essential nutrients
Essential nutrients in intake levels from what 2 things?
RDAs and AIs
Percentages for carbs, fats, & protein
Carbohydrate 45-65%
Protein 10-35%
Fat 20-35%
Food Guide Pyramid tells us what?
-5 food groups
-ranges of daily serving
-types of foods to eat
-go for foods to fit you best
-healthy diets=all of the groups
Mediterranean Diet Pyramid
-made to help reduce risk of heart disease and cancer
-olive oil, breads, whole grain cereals, nuts, fish, dried beans, vegetables, and fruits, wine
-limit red meats, poultry, & sweets
Asian Food Guide Pyramid
-plant foods and reduced intake of red meat, eggs, poultry products
Energy nutrients (sources of energy)
carbs, fats, protein
What is a calorie?
-amount of energy needed to raise 1 kilogram of water 1 degree centigrade
Body needs energy for three categories:
-basal metabolism
-physical activity
-dietary thermogenesis
Basal metabolism uses 60-80% of total calories for?
-beating of the heart
-maintain body temp
-renew muscle & bone tissue
-activities to sustain life & health
Growth is component of ___________?
basal metabolism
Calories for basal metabolism highest during what?
growing years
T or F: Basal metabolic processes requires conscious effort
Energy needed for basal metabolism is measured how?
when body is in complete physical and emotional rest
How to calculate BMR
Estimate calories for basal men: Multiply body weight in pounds by 11
women: Multiply body weight in pounds by 10
What other factors affect how efficiently the body uses calories?
-physical activity level
-muscle mass
-health status
-genetic traits
Calories needed for physical activity vary according to what?
how active you are
Energy cost of inactive lifestyle ___% of calories for basal metabolism
“Average” activity level requires roughly ____%
“Active” level requires approximately ___%
Body mechanisms that encourage regular calorie intake are what?
independent of weight
Hunger signals when cells do what?
run low on energy
Signal from what 4 body components indicate satiety?
brain, stomach, liver, fat cells
Total caloric need to maintain energy balance and weight is affected by what?
-Lean muscle mass
-Genetic makeup
Calories for thermogenesis: energy is needed for what?
-chewing & swallowing foods -digesting foods
-absorbing & utilizing nutrients
-transporting nutrients into cells
Calories for dietary thermogenesis are about___% of sum of basal metabolic and physical activity calories
How are foodborne illness spread?
-Spread by many foods
(raw or under cooked meat and eggs, shellfish, & raw milk)
What causes foodborne illness?
-bacteria & viruses
-marine life
-toxins & chemicals in foods or water
Common symptoms of foodborne illness are?
-abdominal cramps
2 most common causes of foodborne illness (unspecific)
virus and bacteria
How do foods usually go bad?
Virus and bacteria enter food supply during food processing, storage, or preparation
_______increases incidence of foodborne illnesses
4 steps to food safety
What does these mean?
Wash hands and surfaces often
Don’t cross-contaminate
Cook to proper temperatures
Refrigerate promptly
What are the influences on becoming overweight or obesity?
-Physical activity
-Environmental exposures
-Genetic factors
Regulation of______ and _____ are in large part, genetically determined
food intake
What constantly encourage food intake—especially when food is available?
Inborn mechanisms
FYI: Multiple mechanisms for enhanced intake and fat storage were keys to survival
Changes in _______ and ______of food can explain why obesity is a major problem
Hamwi calculation for women
Five feet equals 100 pounds, then add 5 pounds for each additional inch
Hamwi calculation for men
Five feet equals 106 pounds, then add 6 pounds for each additional inch
BMI guidelines and limits
-Underweight:less than 18.5
-Normal weight:18.5-24.9 Overweight:25-29.9
Obese:more than30
_______ rather than BMI should be used to diagnose obesity in children and adolescents
Body fat content
Overweight and obesity ___% and rising
FYI: Muscular people can have “obese” BMI
FYI: Inactive normal BMI people can still have too much body fat
FYI: If people retain fluid, BMI may show overweight but body fat may be low
% of body fat needed for men and women for survival?
3 to 5% -men
10 to 12%-women
Pear-shaped store fat where?
hips and thighs
Apple-shaped store fat where?
around the waist
Apple-shaped facts
-higher health risk with abdominal fat distribution
-more common among obese men
Why is there health risks associated with belly fat?
Fat cells of central fat deposits are larger than those around the hips and “resistant” to insulin
Process of abdominal fat risk & insulin
resistant-decrease ability of insulin to lower blood glucose-insulin and glucose increase over time-increased insulin:
increases triglyceride levels & bp
less HDL
hypertension & heart disease
develop diabetes
Waists less than ___ inches in men or___inches in
women decreases risk of these diseases
Individuals lacking _____ or secreting _____ are at risk for obesity
high insulin
Major gains most likely between the ages of what?
25 and 34 years
____servings of ____per day may help offset weight gain
FYI: Worldwide, underweight is more common than obesity
A preventable cause of underweight in U.S. is what?
Underweight = less than __% body fat in adult females and ___% body fat in males
Effectiveness of weight-control methods gauged by what?
ability to prevent regain
Americans spend over $_____ annually on weight-loss products and services
$33 billion
FYI: Only 5 to 10% of people who lose weight keep it off for more than a year
___% of adults are overweight or obese, and trying to lose weight
___-___% of people who lose weight gain it back
90 to 95%
Both Xenical and Merida require _________to have any effect
reduced calorie diets
GB reserved for whom
bmi over 40 or 35 and co-morbidities
GB bypassing the stomach reduces ____absorption and increases ____ risk
vitamin B12 absorption and increases osteoporosis risk
For "successful losers" (50 over 5 years) what were some common behavioral strategies?
-Eat a diet low in total fat
-Frequent self-monitoring of body weight & food intake
-High levels of regular physical activity
FYI: Physical fitness and healthy diet give physical and mental health benefits
3 fitness components:
-muscular strength
How is physical fitness achieved?
-resistance training (strength)
-aerobic exercise (endurance)
-stretching (flexibility)
People who are physically fit have 2 major things:
-respiratory & circulatory systems that can deliver large amounts of oxygen to muscles
-muscular systems that can use large amounts of oxygen for long time
Regular exercise may help reduce risk of:
-obesity (excess belly fat)
-heart disease
-some types of cancer
-hypertension and stroke
-back injury
Benefits of exercise
-Increases feelings of well-being
-Relieves depression, anxiety, and stress
-Improved sleep patterns
FYI: Exercise combined with healthful diet and lifestyle behaviors benefit health -ex:
Heart disease lower than exercise alone
Regular physical activity builds _____ and reduces risk of _________
bone mass
FYI: Risk osteo is lowered more if exercise is combined with adequate calcium and vitamin D
Exercise helps people do 3 bodily comp things:
-lose body fat
-build muscle mass
-become physically fit
Exercise can lead to increase in caloric intake & increased ________
increased lean body mass (↑metabolic rate)
What is Strength?
is maximum force that muscles can produce
FYI: Overweight and thin people can both be physically fit
What is Endurance?
is length of time muscles can perform
What is Flexibility?
is a person’s range of motion
Muscle cell size increases in response to what types of exercise?
weight-bearing or resistance exercise
For endurance ___ and ___ yield stamina
Inherited traits and conditioning
Oxygen use corresponds to what?
aerobic fitness...Aerobic = oxygen utilization
Aerobic fitness is assessed by measuring what?
maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
FYI: People can perform physical activity at 100% of VO2 max for only a few minutes
Beginners start aerobic fitness program at ___-___% of VO2 max
40 to 60%
Aerobically fit people may train at ___-___% of VO2 max
70 to 85%
How do you estimate your VO2 max? (resulting figure is what?)
-220 minus your age = MHR
-Multiply MHR by aerobic fitness %
-“target heart rate” for aerobic exercise
Why is flexibility good?
-increases range of motion of joints and muscles
-protect muscles and connective tissues from injury, stiffness and pain
Energy demands of activity are primarily supplied by what 2 things?
glucose and fatty acids
Muscles can use for what 3 things energy?
fat, glucose, and amino acids
For muscles, the proportions and amount of each energizer depends on what?
intensity of exercise
In inactive muscle, ____ supplies ___-___% of total energy needed
85 to 90%
Oxygen is required to do what in exercising?
convert fat into energy
Activities of low-to-moderate intensity are ____ or _____.
“aerobic” or “oxygen requiring”
____, ____ types of exercises are the type used to increase aerobic fitness
Fat-burning, oxygen-requiring exercises
High-intensity, short-duration activities like sprinting down the block to catch a bus are fueled primarily by what?
______ for intense activities comes from what?
In ____type exericised glycogen is stored where? and are rapidly converted to ____when needed?
in muscles and liver
Conversion of glucose to energy for intense activity that doesn’t require oxygen is called
FYI: People can do intensive activity only as long as stores of glucose last
Best diet for physical fitness includes:
vegetables and fruits, whole grains, lean meats and fish, and low-fat dairy products
Healthy diets supply adequate what?
vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids, fiber, fluid, and phytochemicals
FYI: Diets that promote physical fitness can include well-planned vegetarian diets
Drink to replace fluid lost in what?
respiration, sweat, and urine
FYI: Physical activity increases need for water
Water lost during exercise equals what?
weight lost during exercise
FYI: more water in cold air- holds less water vapor, so you lose more water breathing in cold weather
FYI: ACSM and CDC recommend levels of activity that benefit health and contribute to decline in rising incidence of obesity in the U.S.
To prevent weight gain you need ________ min of moderate physical activity per day
30 to 60 minutes
USDA/DHHS Dietary Recommendation: For weight loss you need ___-___ min per day
60 to 90 minutes
Most people average less than _____ steps a day
3,000 steps per day (you want more than 10,000 and no less than like 2,750)
Three factors affect physical performance:
FYI: Most ergogenic aids do not improve performance
remember to look at ADP page
remember to look at ADP page
What is the source of energy for muscle contraction?
Each substrate forms ___ from ___?
ATP from ADP
(Anaerobic)Glucose from the ____and ____ can form ATP without ____.
liver & muscle glycogen oxygen
Glucose is converted to during _____ anaerobic energy formation
In the absence of ______, pyruvate is converted to ______ or ______
lactate or lactic acid
(Anaerobic)Lactate can ____________ if not converted back to ______ by the addition of oxygen
build up in muscles and blood
(Aerobic) Conversion of pyruvate and fatty acids to ATP requires ______
(Aerobic) More ATP is delivered by the breakdown of _______ than _______
fatty acids
(Aerobic)_____ fuel low- and moderate- intensity exercise, below ____% VO2 max
Fatty acids
(Glycogen stores) Energy for muscle comes from _____ and _____.
fatty acids and glucose
______ are main source of energy for low- to moderate-intensity activity
Fatty acids
Glucose is main source for __________?
high-intensity activity
Adults can get over ______ calories from fat
FYI: So one’s ability to perform high intensity activity is limited by the amount of glycogen stored
People who run out of muscle glycogen during an event do what?
“hit the wall”
Athletes consuming a typical U.S. diet have enough _______ to fuel continuous, intense exercise for how much time?
an hour or two
What is carb loading?
Increase carbohydrate intake to 60 to 70% of calories for the 24-hour period following high intensity exercise when glycogen stores have been depleted
Individuals in strength training may need up to ___ grams more protein daily
Athletes in short events stay hydrated from ___ cups of water ___to___ min before the event
2 cups
15 to 20 minutes
FYI: Fluid balance is maintained when no weight is lost and urine remains pale yellow and normal volume
FYI: For longer events or hot and humid conditions athletes should maintain fluid balance throughout activity
What is dehydration?
Loss above 2% of body weight (2–4 pounds) during an event indicates that body is dehydrated
What is hyponatremia?
sodium deficiency...occurs when only water is consumed during long events
FYI: Body fat levels of less than 3% in men and less than 12% in women seriously interfere with health
Women at high risk of bone fractures are those with “female-athlete triad” of what 3 things?
disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis
What is an ergonomic aid?
Substances that claim to increase the capacity for muscular work (few tested for safety)