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45 Cards in this Set

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Antigen
Anything deemed foreign
Humoral immunity
One of two-types of immunity. Fluid or blood based
Cell mediated immunity
One of two types of immunity. One cell killing another cell.
Cells of the immune system
Phagocytes (macrophages and PMNs) and Lymphocytes
PMN's and Macrophages
Involved in inflammation and the immune system. Some of the first responders in the immune response.
Lymphocytes come from where?
Bone marrow, thymus, spleen and lymph nodes
T and B cells
Lymphocytes
Lymphocytes
Circulate between blood, tissue, lymphatic system, and lymphoid organs. Immunocompetent. Recognize foreign antigens
T Lymphocytes are divided into 4 subsets
Cytotoxic, Helper, Natural Killer, and Suppressor
T lymphocytes become immunocompotent here
Thymus and it happens in utero
True or False...
As you age you will continue to develope new T cells and program them.
False, you have all the T cells you need at birth.
Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for what?
Organ rejection, destroy virally infected cells or cancerous cells
Cytotoxic T cells are responsible for which type of immunity?
Cell mediated immunity
True or false...
Cytotoxic T cells require help from Helper T cells to mount an immune response.
True
How do cytotoxic T cells kill foreign invaders?
They proliferate and then secrete cytotoxic proteins (perforins)
Perforins are produced by what, and what is their function?
Produced by Cytotoxic T Cells and they puncture a hole in the foreign cell to kill it
True or false...
Once the foreign invader is gone most Cytotoxic T cells die off but a few remain as memory cells.
True
Helper T Cells (what do they do and how do they do it)
Recognize the antigen but it must be presented to it by antigen presenting cells
What is an example of an antigen presenting cell?
Macrophage
How does the antigen presenting cell (macrophage) present the invader to the Helper T cell?
Internalize the invader, combine it with a protein and insert it onto their plasma membrane where it binds with the receptor on the helper T cell.
How the Helper T cells help both B and T cells?
By activating and proliferating. Then they synthesize cytokines that stimulate cell division for B and T cells.
How the AIDS virus effects the Helper T cells
Virus uses CD4 receptor to get into the cell and then causes the Helper T cells to die and the virus is then released and free to infect other cells.
Why is AIDS so devesating to the immune system?
Because attacks Helper T cells which means there is no memory, and no cytokine production which means no immune response can be initiated.
MHC
Major Histocompatibility complex
What are MHC?
protein complexes on the surface of all cells
Class I MHC are found where and do what?
Found on all normal cells and serve as cellular identity tags.
Class II MHCs are found where and do what?
Found on macrophages and phagocytes. Act as the trophy, found on the surface of these cells to form an altered MHC Class II
Class II MHCs help Helper T cells in what way?
Present the antigen on the macrophage to the Helper T cells
Where do B lymphocytes come from?
Orginate and mature in bone marrow and migrate to the other lymphoid organs
What are B lymphocytes responsible for?
production of the 5 classes of antibodies that are known as immunoglobuins
Immunoglobulins are found where and this is what type of immunity?
In the blood, interstitial and other fluids and Humoral immunity
When a B lymphocyte encounters an antigen what happens?
It recognizes it as foreign and then is activated and it does require help from the Helper T cell. It does not require antigen presentation.
When help is provided for B cells from Helper T cells what happens?
They multiply and most differentiate into plasma cells which live only a few hours or a few days.
True or False...
All B cells differentiate into plasma cells.
False... a small subset of B cells do not and they remain to act as memory cells.
What is the function of the memory cells?
With reintroduction of the same antigen at a later date results in an immediate and massive response. Massive release of immunoglobulins.
What is the basis for acquired immunity and immunizations?
Memory Cells
Plasma Cells come from where?
Activated B-lymphocytes
What do plasma cells secrete?
Antibodies (Immunoglobulins)
What are immunoglobulins?
Proteins that travel all over the body via the blood and other fluids to reach and react with antigens identical to those that stimulated their production.
Immunoglobulins can be found in which type of immunity?
Humoral immunity
How is it determined if a patient is mounting an immune response?
Testing for certain titers of antibodies in the blood
How many types or classes of immunoglobulins will be released from one group of plasma cells that are derived from one activated B-lymphocyte?
Just one type or class (Only IgA, or IgG, etc...)
True or False...
Immunoglobulins are proteins that have a specific shape and structure and are composed or amino acids.
True
What are the five classes of immunoglobulins?
IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, IgM
What is the function of immunoglobulins?
Has sequence of amino acids that serve as antigen binding sites, once it binds to antigen that antigen is marked for death. (Important immunoglobulins do not do the actually killing). Marked so that PMNs, macrophages, or complements can kill them.