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16 Cards in this Set

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Freud Stages? (5)
Freud’s stages include:
Stage 1: oral (birth to 12-18 months)
Stage 2 Anal (12-18 months & up to 3 years)
Stage 3 Phallic or Oedipal ( 3-6 years)
Stage 4 Latency (6-12 years)
Stage 5: Genital (Puberty through Adulthood)
What was Erikson's concept of human development based upon?
Erik Erikson believed that individuals need to accomplish one task before moving on to another. Mastering one task before the next is necessary for success in life.
Erikson's stages? (8)
Stage 1 Trust versus mistrust (birth -1 year) Does the child trust its caregivers to be reliable?
Stage 2 Autonomy versus sense of shame and doubt (1-3 years) Child needs to explore world and if parents smothers them they will feel shameful
Stage 3 Initiative versus guilt (3-6 years) Does the child feel guilty about making own choices, If so this will be overcome quickly by a sense of accoplishment
Stage 4 Industry versus inferiority (6-11 years) Child comparing self worth to others (such as in a classroom environment)
Stage 5 Identify versus role confusion (Puberty) Who am i and where am i going in life? However, if the parents continually push him/her to conform to their views, the teen will face identity confusion.
Stage 6 Intimacy versus isolation (young adult) This stage has begun to last longer as young adults choose to stay in school and not settle.
Stage 7 Generative versus self-absorption and stagnation (middle age) Am I satisfied or not? The need to assist the younger generation. Stagnation is the feeling of not having done anything to help the next generation.
Stage 8 Integrity versus despair (old age) Reflect on the past and either are bitter or satisfied with accomplishments
What was Freud's concept of human development based upon?
Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego regulate behavior. His theory is a balance between pleasure-seeking drives and societal pressures.
What was Piaget's concept of human development based upon?
Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was a Swiss biologist and philosopher interested in the development of children's intellectual organization—in other words, how they think, reason, and perceive their world.
Piaget’s theory of cognitive development has 4 stages, name and describe them (age ranges).
Period I: Sensorimotor (birth to 2 years) object permancence, experience movement through movement and senses
Period II preoperational (2 to 7 years) magical thinking predominates and motor skills develop
Period III concrete operations (7 to 11 years) can think logically but are very concrete in thinking no longer egocentric
Period IV formal operations (11 years to adulthood) abstact thinking
Adolescence has how many stages associated with it ?
3 they range from ages 11-20 years.
What is the difference between maturation and puberty?
maturation is a stage of psychosocial maturation and puberty is the ability to reproduce
(just read this a couple of times with regard to adolescence)
Cognitively this group develops the ability to think rationally. They can determine and rank possibilities, solve problems, and make decisions logically. They develop the ability to understand how the ideas or actions of an individual influence others. Linguistically, their primary focus becomes communication skills to use in situations. This groups needs to communicate their thoughts, feelings, and facts to peers, parents, teachers, and other authority figures.
Psychosocially they are searching for personal identity. Erikson explains that identity or role confusion occurs at this stage. This group needs to develop their own ethical system based on their personal values. They also need to think about their future job/professional aspirations, future education, and lifestyles. At this stage, this group struggles with sexual, group, family, vocational, moral, and health identity.
What are the first second and third highest reasons for death amongst adolescents?

What factors attribute to the reason for their status?
Accidents : leading cause of death ( lots due to alcohol and drugs)

Homicide: 2 nd leading cause of death in 15-24 group: Males and African Americans Firearms are a major contributer. Much of what they see on TV, hear in music and play on video games encourages antisocial behavior.

Suicide: 3rd leading cause of death 15-24. Depression and social isolation precede the attempt. We must be aware of the signs ( usually occur 1 month prior): poor school performance, withdrawal, loss of initiative, sadness, loneliness, crying, appetite and sleep disturbance, verbalization of suicidal thoughts, self injury
What is the average age of adolescents who begin substance abusing and at what average age do adolescents become addicted?
10 and 14
T/F eating disorders are on the rise with adolescent girls?

What type of condition is commonly resulting from these disorders?
TRUE

anorexia
Besides psychological and emotional changes what is a likely influence in the fact that 54% of adolescents admit to having sex?
peer pressure
What subcategory of adolescents are at greater risk due to high risk environments and lack of access to health care?
minorities
What subcategory of adolescents are at greater due to lack of access to health care,limited health care insurance, limited privacy, lack of transportation to health care, poverty, and farming accidents?
rural adolescents
Why are gays, lesbians, and bisexuals at a greater risk of adverse health?
Suicide and depression is high amongst this group. If they are open about their sexuality they are subjected to harrassment, violence, and family abuse.