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82 Cards in this Set

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Physical elements of a group include 4 things;
1. seating
2. size
3. membership
4. environment
most common type of group
therapeutic
_____________, helps clients identify goal for the day. provides client with a focus for the day. helps keep sanity. have to be achievable.
goal setting
___________- go over what was done for the day. was anything accomplished, why or why not. what could have been done differently. rename goal if not achieved.
Reflections
Type of group where you have anything that is fun. helps socialize, take mind off of anything that may be bothering the patient.
-watch t.v., play games, workout, movies, music, arts, social, pet therapy
Leisure/recreational
Type of group where you have exercise, grooming, relaxation. anything that improves health maintenance, nutrition.
Self-care
What type of person has the following traits?
1. ability to sit still and attend
2. ability to concentrate
3. socialization ability- how seclusive are they. ability to socialize
4. ability to learn, read and write
High functioning person
this kind of group includes everyone in different levels of functioning.
mixed group
with this type of group only certain functioning patients are included in this group
selective
what kind of seating with an interacive group
be in a circle, facing one another
-provides best communication arrangement.
what is a good size for a group that will allow good sharing and everyone a chance to talk
8-10 people
a closed or open type of group provides source of trust and structure.
closed
a closed or open type of group is where people can come and go. may have a few of the same people each time but not all the time
open group
a closed or open group is considered peer group therapy that helps with relationship building.
closed
largest part of the brain with thick cellular layers mixed with blood vessels giving the graysih color (gray matter)
Cerebrum
the outermost surface that makes up about 80% of the brain
cortex
each hemisphere is divided into lobes that function in a coordinating way.
functions include:
working memory, ability to plan and initiate activity, insight, judgment, reasoning, problem-solving skills, abstraction, modulations of impulses (keeping emotions in control)
Cerebrum
which lobe of the brain is the highest level of functioning, which makes up a large part of what we call personality.
frontal lobe
this is the emotional center of the brain. basic emotions and needs begin and are modulated here (hate, love, anger, aggression, caring, fear)
limbic system
mainly stores information, especially emotions attached to memory. deterioration of this and other related structures is found in alzheimers disease.
hippocampus
relay-swithching center of the brain. Relays all sensory information, except smell to cortex. Prevents sensory overload. Allows concentration on one thing.
Thalamus
regulates basic human activities (sleep-rest patterns, body temperature,hunger, sex, appetite, thirst). Directly connected to pituitary and works with the pituitary in regulating endocrine system. Involved in the control of autonomic nervous system.
Hypothalamus
provides emotional component to memory and involved in modulation of aggression and sexuality. Impulsive acts of aggression and violence have been linked to problems. Focus of research into bipolar disorder
Amygdala
plays role in biologic basis of addiction. Referred to as pleasure center or reward center. Emotions such as feeling satisfied with good food, pleasure of nurturing young, enjoyment of sexual activity originate here.
Limbic midbrain nuclei
Autonomic nervous system is regulated by _____________.
hypothalamus
sympathetic and parasympathetic are part of what nervous system
Autonomic Nervous system
prepares for fight or flight (increases heart rate/ respirations, decreases digestion and shunts blood to vital organs and skeletal muscles for increased oxygen.
sympathetic
dominates non-stressful times, normalizes heart rate, blood pressure, digestion and elimination
Parasympathetic
basic unit or nervous system
-about 10 billion
-complexities of brain are due to enourmous number of neurochemical interconnections and interactions between neurons'
Neuron
type of neuron that sends messages from receptors to brain
Sensory
type of neuron that send messages from brain to muscles and glands
Motor
This type of neuron makes up 99% of all neurons.
-provide intergrators between sensory and motor data
associative
this type of cell is not a neuron but is a lipid substance (gives the whitish appearance to brain) that support and nourish and make up about 90% of the brain.
-probably has other functions that are unknown
Glial cells
microstructure of Neuron-
the __________maintains life of cells, contains the nucleus which contains most of the cells genetic information and makes neurotransmitters
cell body
microstructure of Neuron-
The ___________- contains some proteins that have water filled channels through which inorganic ions may pass(Na,K,Ca,Cl)
-each ion has a specific channel through which it passes. the channels are voltage gated and thus open/close in response to changes in electrical potential (impulse)
Cell membrane
microstructure of Neuron-
The ____-are extremely long and are covered by myelin sheath (insulates against short circuuiting and increases velocity)
Axon
Microstructure of Neuron-
The ____________- also called terminals have more then 10,000 branches on each neuron and they store neurotransmitters.
Nerve endings
Microstructure of Neuron-
The _______- have more than 10,000 brances and contain receptor sites. the receptor sites receive input from neurotransmitters and transmits to cell body.
Dendrites
Microstructure of Neuron-
The______is the junction between two neurons. it is the space where electrical intracellular signal becomes a chemical extra-cellular signal
Synapse
also called synaptic cleft
Microstructure of Neuron-
_____________are chemical messangers. they are small molecules that directly and indirectly control the opening or closing or ion channels.
Neurotransmittors
Microstructure of Neuron-
The ____________- are specific to neurotransmittor released. inactivates neurotransmittor so impulse doesn't continue.
Deactivating Enzymes
Neuron at rest also called___________ status of membrane
polarization
is the inside of the neuron positively or negatively charged?
negatively
is the outside of the neuron electrically charged positive or negative?
postively
The _______is stimulated usually by a chemical stimuli (neurotransmitter) and electrical transmission begins
Neuron
Chemical stimuli at the receptor sites causes the cell membrane to become more __________ (depolarized) at that site allowing easier movement of ions (mainly sodium and potassium) through their channels across the membrane.
Permeable
The nerve impulse or action potential becomes self propagating, opening nearby channels and the action potential moves down into the cell and/or down the axon from the ________.
Dendrites
as impulse reaches terminals in axon, calcium ion channels are opened and an increase in calcium stimulates the release of _____________________into the synapse.
neurotransmitters
the impulse ends its travel and the cell membrane is returned to __________ status (repolarized)
POLARIZATION
____________are chemical messengers between neurons that directly and indirectly control the opening or closing of ion channels.
Neurotransmitters
_____________are chemical messengers that make the target cell membrane more or less susceptible to the effects of the primary neurotransmitter.
Neuromodulators
_____________can reduce the membrane potential and enhance the transmission of the signal between neurons. (quickens in response)
Excitatory neurotransmitters
__________________ can slow down nerve impulses. They hold it back so you don't get as much quickness in response
inhibitory neurotransmitters
_______-for the released neurotransmitters are embedded in the postsynaptic membrane. Each neurotransmitter has a protein receptor for which it and only it will fit.
They make the membrane permeable and the electrical conduction begins
Receptors (proteins)
The neurotransmitters job is done. It is either broken down in the cleft or taken up by the __________terminal.
presynaptic
________is the primary cholinergic neurotransmitter. There are two groups of receptors.
Acetylcholine (ACh)
with cholinergic's the receptors we're concerned with are the ____________.
muscarinic
Functions of ___________are:
motor behavior
mood regulation
sleep/arousal
stimulates parasympathetic nervous system
Cholinergic
Drugs that block the receptors of cholinergic drugs are called ________ drugs cause the common side effects of dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, urinary retention, and tachycardia (increased pulse rate)
anticholinergic drugs
Biogenic Amines
______is an excitatory neurotransmitter and is involved in cognition, motor and neuroendocrine functions. influences emotions, motivation, social conscience, judgment and reasoning.
Dopamine
A second major pathway for Dopamine involves the __________motor system, which serves as voluntary and involuntary motor movements.
extrapyramidal
a third major pathway for dopamine involves the ___________. It has an impact on hunger, thirst, sexual function, circadian rhythms, digestion, and temperature control.
pituitary gland
Drugs that block the receptors cause _______, problems with the third major pathway activities, and problems with the first major pathway.
EPS
__________is an excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a role in the generation and maintenance of mood state. also involved in wakefulness and sleep and are responsible for vasoconstriction necessary to maintain BP in upright position.
Norepinephrine
Receptors to norepinephrine are called ___________receptors.
adrenergic
drugs that block the reuptake of norepinephrine (_____________) may also block muscarinic receptors (anticholinergic effects) and alpha-1 adrenergic receptors (producing orthostatic hypotension)
tricyclic antidepressants
____________is primarily an excitatory neurotransmitter that plays a role in emotions, cognition, sensory perceptions and in the essential biologic functions such as sleep, appetite , sexual behavior, hormone secretion, and thermoregulation.
Serotonin
Drugs that _______ the reuptake of serotonin are fairly specific so they have little side effects
Block
____________is a recently identified neurotransmitter. Functions not known but thought to be involved in autonomic and neuroendocrine regulation
Histamine
Drugs that block the histamine receptors are called ___________and may produce the side effect of sedation
antihistamines
Amino Acids-
________________ is primarily an inhibitor. It has a major role in the control of neuronal excitability throughout the body.
Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
___________antianxiety drugs and sedative barbiturate drugs work because of their affinity for GABA receptor sites.
Benzodiazepine
____________is the most widely distributed excitatory neurotransmitter. it may play a role in the long-lasting enhancement of synaptic activity. However, too much glutamate is harmful to neurons. May be involved in schizophrenia.
Glutamate
Role of this drug class is to act specifically at receptor sites. they are structured similar to neurotransmitters (agonists) and they may also block biologic responses (antiagonists) and they may also act as agonist on one receptor site and antagonist at another
Psychotropic drugs
Three properties of drugs are:
1.
2.
3.
1. selectivity
2. affinity
3. intrinsic activity
___________- ability of drug to be specific for particular receptor.
-more selective- will affect on specific receptors it was meant for.
-less selective- may affect other receptors and therefore produce unindended side effects or untoward effects.
selectivity
_________=degree of chemical attraction or bond between drug and receptors.
-if weak or bond-drug effects are easily reversed when drug is d/c.
-if strong (more than one chemical bond)-drug effects may take weeks to resolve when the drug is discontinued.
affinity
_____________- ability of a drug to produce a biologic response once it attaches to receptor.
-if high or good biologic response- agonist (move it along)
-if low or weak biologic response- antagonist (hold back)
Intrinsic activity
______________- block the electrical transmission through channels (secondary messenger system) to main body of cell. Ex- some calcium ones are being tried with mania.
Channel blockers
___________- facilitate opening of channels. Ex- benzodiazepines facilitate GABA to open chloride ion channel.
Channel openers
__________- target for some drugs. Ex- MAOI's act by developing strong bond between medication and MAO enzyme which causes MAO enzyme to be inactivated and thereby ineffective in breaking down neurotransmitter after it has acted at the receptor site.
Enzymes
__________- carry neurotransmitters back across cell membrane of pre-synaptic cell (re-uptake). Medications may block or inhibit this process.
Carrier Proteins