Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/252

Click to flip

252 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
two examples of helminthes:
ascariasis (roundworm)
enterobiasis (pinworm)
example of a spirochete infection:
Lyme disease
8 types of viral infections
varicella
rubella (german measles)
rubeola (measles)
Sars
w. nile
avian flu
parotitis
mono
6 types of bacterial infections
pertussis (whooping cough)
tetanus
diptheria
meningitis
salmonella
tb
how is ascariasis (round worm) transmitted?
ingestion of infected eggs (raw veggies grown in excrement, polluted drinking water.)
when assessing a client with round worm, what symptoms might you see?
protruding abd
swollen face
thin arms and legs
intestinal colic and vomiting
wheezing and coughing
can lead to gi obstruction
how do you diagnose ascariasis?
stool for O&P
observe for worms
how is enterobiasis (pinworm) transmitted?
-eggs from anus to mouth
-from contaminated food/clothing
pinworm eggs remain infective on skin, bedclothes, and clothing for:
29 days
when assessing a client with pinworm, what symptoms might you see?
-intense perianal intching (worse at night
-irritability
-short attn. span
-malnourishment
how do you diagnose pinworm?
stool for O&P
where do adult pinworms live?
small and large intestine
To prevent pinworm infestations, you should clean toilets/floors with:
10% bleach or lysol
to treat pinworm infestations, all family members
must be treated at the same time
to prevent pinworm infestations, avoid:
swimming in public pools that allow diapered babies
night clothes and linens should be washed with what to treat pinworm
hot water and soap
a tick must be on you for how many hours before you contract lyme disease?
36-48hours
How is lyme disease transmitted?
bite of infected deer tick
what two tests are used to diagnose lyme disease?
elisa, western blot
stage one of lime disease last for how many days?
1-32 after tick bite
what are some symptoms of lyme disease during stage one? (6)
fatigue
malaise
sore throat
fever
back and neck pain
rash (bulls eye config possible)
what is the txmnt for stage one of lyme disease
3-4 weeks oral antibiotics
what are some symptoms of lyme disease during stage two? (7)
-severe h/a
-memory lapse
-facial paralysis
-mild cardica problems
-conjunctivitis
-photophobia
-neck stiffness
what is the txmnt for stage two of lyme disease
3-4 weeks IV antibiotics
stage III of lyme disease can happen any time between:
weeks to years after infection.
what are the symptoms of stage III lyme disease
-arthralgia
-swelling
-reddness
-limitied ROM of lg joints
-encephatlitis
-neuropathies
whats the txment for someone in stage III of lyme disease?
prolonged course of IV antibiotics
what are some health promotions/client educations for prevention of lyme disease?
-avoid wooded grassy areas may to july
- walk on cleared paths
-use tick repellents with deet or permethrin
-use tick repellents, collars on pets
-tick checks after being in high risk areas
-tick must be attached to body for 36-48 hours to transmit disease
When in the chicken pox (varicella) communicable?
1-2 days before vesicles appear until the vesicles dry
how is varicella (chicken pox) transmitted? (4)
direct contact
droplet infection
airborne
contact w/contaminated articles
the chicken pox rash begins on:
trunk
what are some symptoms of varicella (chicken pox) ?
fever
malaise
anorexia
rash
pruritis
when should children be immunized for the chicken pox?
one dose between 12-18 mo.
what if the child hasn't been immunized for varicella, and they are over 13 years old. How do you immunize them?
2 doses, 4 weeks apart
treat chicken pox with:
calamine lotion
oatmeal bath
baking soda paste
when is rubella (german measles) communicable?
7 days before onset until 5 days after onset
what four ways can rubella be transmitted?
direct contact droplet
indirect contact droplet
airborne
transplacental
What is the immunization for german measles called?
MMR
when should a child get a immunization (MMR)for german measles? (2x)
12 months; 4 years
what are some symptoms of german measles? (rubella)
-fever
-h/a
-cough
-lymphadnopothy
-pinkish/red macular pacular arthralgias
Tx for rubella (german measles)
pallative, analgesics, antipyretics, encourage fluids, keep pregnant women away!
When is RUBEOLA (measles) communicable?
4 days prior to rash until 5 days after onset.
how is rubeola (measles) transmitted? (3)
-direct contact with resp. droplets
-urine
-blood
what are some symptoms for rubeola (measles)?
fever
malaise
lethargy
conjunctivitis
cough
coryza
KOPLICK SPOTS
only found in rubeola, small red spots, bluish white centers opposite molars
koplick spots
When should someone get immunized for Rubeola?
12months and 4 years
for people with rubeola, give them what for fever?
antipyretic
for people with rubeola, do what to help with the conjunctiva?
clean eyes, dim lights
Parotitis stands for
mumps
when are mumps (parotitis) communicable?
6 days before swelling to 9 days after onset
what two ways can mumps be contracted?
droplet from saliva
direct contact from saliva
when should someone get immunized for mumps? (parotitis)
12 months and 4 years
what are some symptoms for mumps?
fever, h/a, malaise, anorexia, earache from chewing
By the 3rd day with the mumps, what gland is swollen and painful?
parotid
what is a major complication in post puberty boys
Orchitis
Orchitis causes severe:
swelling of the testis
to treat orchitis, a complication of the mumps, a boy should do what 3 things?
-be on soft semi liquid diet
-wear tight undies
-don't consume acidic foods
infective mononucleosis is caused by what kind of virus?
epstein-barr
how is mono transmitted? (2)
direct contact with saliva
blood transfusion
mono may be contagious for how long?
years
what is the most common age group to get mono?
15-25 y.o.
what 3 diagnostic tests are available for mono?
-monospot
-differential wbc
-ultrasound of the spleen
cardinal sign for mono is:
painful exudative tonsillitis (difficulty swallowing.)
some symptoms of mono: (3)
difficulty swallowing
fever
fatigue
what are two things you should teach clients who have mono not to do?
no heavy lifting
no contact sports
how is w. nile virus transmitted?
bite from infected mosquitos
what age group is at risk for w. nile virus?
over 50 y.o.
what are some symptoms of w. nile virus?
h/a
stiff neck
high fever
muscle weakness
confusion
w. nile virus can cause fatal:
encephalitis
SARS stands for:
severe acute respiratory syndrome
how many days should a client be quarantined when they find out they have sars or have been around someone infected with sars?
10 days
how is sars transmitted?
direct contact with resp. secretions
What type of precautions is a sars patient on?
airborne
what are some symptoms for sars?
dry cough
sob
fever >100.4
hypoxemia
pneumonia
what 5 ways is sars treated?
interferon
cysteine protease inhibitors
surfaxin
antibiotics
steroids
what is Surfaxin?
liquid surfactant
What does a cysteine protease inhibitor do?
inhibits viral replication
What keeps virus from entering cell?
interferon
water must stand for how long before mosquitos multiply?
5-7 days
the avian flu is also known as:
A(h5n1)
the avian flu is transmitted thru:
water and soil that's been infected by bird feces
A(H5N1) can survive in soil for how long?
3 months
A(H5N1) can survive in water for how long?
30 days
what must a(h5n1) do to pass easily from human to human?
mutate
what two ways can the avian flu mutate?
adaptation
gene swap
virus enters a human cell, gradually mutates, mutation makes it easier for virus to attack human cells:
ADAPTATION
when 2 viruses enter human cells and replicate
gene swap
someone with the avian flu will be on what type of precautions?
airborne
what should you inquire about when testing for avian flu?
recent travels to asian countries incl. turkey and romania.
what vaccine is available for Diptheria?
DTP
what are some symptoms for diptheria?
low grade fever
fatigue
h/a
sore and edematous throat (bull throat)
what type of precautions is a person with diptheria on?
droplet
what should you keep at the bedside of a diptheria client?
tracheostomy tray
characterized by a pseudomembrane covering the posterior pharynx. Rubbery membrane forms and covers inflammed tissue of the oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharnx in what communicable disease?
diptheria
what are the 3 stages of pertussis? (whooping cough)
catarrhal
paroxysmal
convalescense
the catarrhal stage of pertussis lasts how long?
1-2 weeks
the paroxysmal stage of pertussis lasts how long?
4-6 weeks
During the catarrhal stage (I) of pertussis, what are some common symptoms?
coryza
conjunctivitis
cough
fever
Pertussis is highly contagious in the: stage
catarrhal
during the paroxysmal stage of pertussis (II), what happens?
coughing ends in a loud whoop. During coughing spasms, eyes buldge, tongue pertrudes, red cheeks, thick mucus plug dislodges, vomit
What are 3 txments for pertussis?
-antibiotics
-increase fluids
-sm. freq. meals
what immunization is available for pertussis?
DPT
when does someone receive the DPT immunization?
2,4,6,15 months and 4 years
how does tetanus get transmitted?
from soil to open wounds
what are some symptoms of tetanus?
irritability
h/a
fever
painful spasms of muscles
with tetanus, any wounds to the head and face are
fatal
tetanus likes to live in
dead tissue
if a client has bacterial meningitis, they are put on what type of precautions?
droplet
how is meningitis diagnosed?
lumbar puncture/spinal tap
what immunization is available for meningitis?
hib
what three things should be monitiored on someone with meningitis?
hydration
electrolytes
increased intracranial pressure
inflammation of cns, spreads to cerebral spinal fluid to subarachnoid space with:
bacterial meningitis
what are some symptoms of meningitis?
fever
vomiting
h/a
stiff neck
seizures
irritability
how is salmonellosis transmitted?
food contamination
how is salmonella diagnosed?
stool culture
symptoms of salmonella:
abd pain
fever
foul diarrhea
what type of precautions is a client with tb put on?
airborne
symptoms for tb:
cough for more then 3 wks
fever
chills
night sweats
fatigue
anorexia
wt. loss
with tb, a cough may last for:
more then 3 weeks
clients are more at risk for tb if they:
have another chronic disease
what are some diagnostic tests for tb? (4)
ppd
cxr
sputum smear
culture for afb
three major principles of nursing care for the client with communicable disease
1. prevent the spread of infection by using aseptic practice
2. disease managment
3. health promotion
hiv stands for:
human immunodeficiency virus
Hiv is a disease along a continuum. It ranges from:
asymptomatic infection to full blown aids
hiv was discovered by a french scientist in
1983
where and from what did hiv originate?
w. africa
chimps
what type of virus is hiv?
retrovirus
what 4 types of cells are affected by hiv?
CD4
t lymphocytes
monocytes
macrophages
what cells decrease while replicating more hiv?
cd4
hiv process is in a slowed state of activity until the CD4 cells are activated by :
an invasion of pathogens
the stimulation of the immune system causes an increased replication of HIV cells rather than an increase in:
cd4 cells
HIV is a bloodborne infection that is transmitted in three ways:
sexually
infected blood
mother to infant
most common mode of transmission of HIV
sexual contact with hiv infected partner
whats the percentage for contracting hiv with one act of receptive anal intercourse?
0.5-3% chance
whats the percentage for contracting hiv with one act of vaginal intercourse?
0.1% chance
whats the percentage for contracting hiv with one time of sharing a needle with an hiv infected person?
1%
what percentage of neonates born to hiv infected mothers will have the virus?
20-25%
can hiv be transmitted thru breast milk?
yes
infection with hiv is a gradual destruction of the:
body's immune system
transmission of hiv is possible during what stages?
all 5
what is the first stage of hiv called?
acute retroviral syndrome (window phase)
the acute retroviral syndrome (window phase) of hiv lasts for how long?
1-3 weeks
In this stage of hiv, the antigen in the system, but body hasn't developed antibodies yet, no symptoms yet, hard to detect
acute retroviral syndrome (window phase)
it takes this long for the hiv antibody test to become positive:
3wks to 3months
from 3 wks- 3 months, a person with hiv will experience the following symptoms:
flu like symptoms
low grade fever
chills
malaise
skin rash
lymphadenopathy
the third phase of hiv infection is called the:
early chronic infection
the early chronic infection (stage III) will start when?
1-20 years after infection
what is encouraged with ppl who have hiv virus?
exercise
the fourth stage of hiv is known as:
intermediate chronic infection.
the intermediate chronic infection of hiv will last
1-3 years
during the intermediate chronic infection of hiv, what are some symptoms?
they vary. Immune system starts to fail., persistant low grade fever, diarrhea, lesions, night sweats, weight loss, cognitive slowing,peripheral neuropathy
the fifth stage of hiv is known as:
late chronic infection
During the late chronic infection, hiv turns to:
aids
during the late chronic infection (AIDS), what symptoms occur?
respiratory pneumonia, wasting gi problem
what two tests are used to diagnose hiv?
elisa, western blot
blood is tested for hiv with the elisa test 2x because
the elisa test provides a large number of false positives
after the elisa test comes up positive for hiv, we do what test?
western blot
what types of lubes should we tell people to use when worried about hiv?
water based
If you have an needle using drug addict, what could you teach them about limited chance of getting hiv?
clean equip with bleach
use needle exchange program
dont share
rehab
treat hiv pregnant female with what during pregnancy and delivery?
azt
newborns to hiv infected mothers are treated with
azt
elected C sections decrease chance of passing hiv to fetus to what percentage? (must be before membranes are ruptured)
10%
what is the normal level for CD4 of a normal/noninfected person?
600-1200mm3
what is the level of CD4 in a person with generalized hiv symptoms?
200-500mm3
what is the level of CD4 in a person with infections and malignancies associated with aids?
200 and under
branched dna is also know as
viral load
what measures the amount of hiv virus circulating in peripheral blood?
branched DNA or viral load
a desirable viral load is:
10,000 or less
a retrovirus uses several different enzymes to replicate and assemble more HIV within the cell. Pharmacological txmnts target:
these enzymes and block their actions
What are three types of meds that help with hiv?
protease inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, and reverse transciptase inhibitors
blocks viral HIV RNA from transforming into cell dna. It also blocks viral hiv from incorporating into new cells as they divide
reverse transcriptase inhibitors
What block viral replication in the cells
protease inhibitors
what prevents binding of hiv to healthy cells, thus blocking entry
fusion inhibitors
fusion inhibitors are given how? how often?
SC injection, bid
is herpes curable?
no
type I hsv affects areas:
above waist
type II hsv affects areas:
below the waist
2 risk factors for HSV?
prior hsv infections
impaired immune system
what part of the nerve does hsv affect?
ganglion
initial infection of hsv can appear like:
flu like symptoms
Purulent vaginal drainage, painful urination, single or multiple leasion that heal without scarring are all symptoms of:
hsv
what causes an outbreak to occur once infected?
stress, fever, emotional upset, over exposure to sun
can herpes be transmitted during delivery?
yes
what 4 tests are availble to diagnose hsv?
visual, pap smear, viral culture of fluid inside vesicle, tissue culture
is herpes reported to health dept?
no
what three things can help people with hsv?
antiviral meds
viscous lidocain
burrows solution
how may different types of gential warts are there?
over 70
what is gential warts caused by?
hpv
what is wart growth facilitated by?
warm moist conditions
warts are usually what 2 colors?
gray or white
when will warts enlarge?
during pregnancy
warts can settle where in an infant?
larynx
what 3 ways can warts be diagnosed?
biopsy
pap smear
visual exam
what is the mode of transmission for gential warts?
sexual contact
who is eligable for hpv vaccine?
12-14 y.o. girls who are not sexually active
what percentage of women with gential warts get cervical cancer?
70
what therapy can eradicate hpv (warts)
none
is gonorrhea reported to the health dept?
yes
how is gonorrhea transmitted?
sexual contact
s/s of gonorrhea
can be asymptomatic; purulent, yellow green drainage, dysuria, urinary freq, pelvic or abd pain, vaginal burning
can gonorrhea be treated and cured?
yes
what are some symptoms in men with gonorrhea?
redness, swelling, pain, drainage
what diagnostic test is available for gonorrhea?
smear/culture
what should newborns receive if mother has gonorrhea?
prophylactic eye ointment (erythromycin)
if newborns born to mothers with gonorrhea are untreated they can become:
blind
what two big problems are associated with untreated gonorrhea?
ectopic pregnancies, sterility
is syphillis reported to the local health dept?
yes
what are the four stages of syphillis?
primary, secondary, latent, tertiary
during the primary stage of syphillis, what is a main symptom?
painless open sore or chancre
syphillis is HIGHLY contagious during what stage?
I
without txment of syphillis, chancre usually disappears when?
in 6wks
during the secondary stage of syphillis, what symptoms are present?
rash, alopecia, malaise
during the latent stage of syphillis, what symptoms are present?
none
the secondary stage of syphillis occurs how long after chancre appears?
6wks to 6months
what disease is known for skin lesions on hands and feet?
syphillis
in what stage is syphillis no infectious except to fetus of pregnant woman
latent
when does the tertiary stage of syphillis occur?
3-20 years after initial infection
how do you diagnose a person with syphillis if theyve had it for more than a year?
lumbar puncture
if a client has syphillis for less then a year, treat them with:
PCN IM in one large dose
when does syphillis become uncurable?
tertiary phase
follow up care is important for all stages of:
syphillis
what is the most common sti in the us?
chlamydia
is chlamydia reported to health depts?
yes
45% of clients seeking treatment for gonorrhea also have:
chlamydia
40% of women with PID have PID as a result of:
chlamydia
50% of all people in world have
chlamydia
in females with chlamydia, what are some symptoms?
painful urination, abnormal vaginal discharge, pelvic pain.
chlamydia may cause: (3)
pid, ectopic pregnancy, infertility
neonates are at risk for what if mother has chlamydia?
opthalmia neonatorum
what two tests can diagnose chlamydia?
cell culture, 4hr quick lab test
what groups are at risk for bacterial vaginosis, or gardnerella vaginallis?
sexually active women. reoccurence if sex partners untreated
a change in vaginal flora, causing an alkaline vaginal pH causes:
gardnerella vaginalis.
if the vaginal ph is below 4.5:
gardnerlla vaginalis
paste liek vaginal discharge, fishy odor without inflammation
gardnerella vaginalis
what are people treated with who have gardnerella vaginalis?
flagyl
causes urethritis, epididymitis, inflammation, and rectal discharge in men:
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
causes white curdlike discharge, itching, edema, redness in women
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
if the vaginal ph is below 4.5:
gardnerlla vaginalis
if the vaginal ph is below 4.5:
gardnerlla vaginalis
paste liek vaginal discharge, fishy odor without inflammation
gardnerella vaginalis
what are people treated with who have gardnerella vaginalis?
flagyl
paste liek vaginal discharge, fishy odor without inflammation
gardnerella vaginalis
what are people treated with who have gardnerella vaginalis?
flagyl
causes urethritis, epididymitis, inflammation, and rectal discharge in men:
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
causes urethritis, epididymitis, inflammation, and rectal discharge in men:
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
causes white curdlike discharge, itching, edema, redness in women
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
causes white curdlike discharge, itching, edema, redness in women
yeast infection (fungal vaginits or monilial)
asymptomatic to prurits, green/yellow vaginal discharge
trichomoniasis
how is trichomoniasis treated
flagyl
a complex infectious process in which organisms from the lower genital tract migrates from the cervix to the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
abd discomfort to severe pain, gever, fatigue, yellow or green vaginal discharge and reddened cervix are symptoms of:
PID
all sti's increase chance of:
cancer
miscarriages
passing infection to fetus.