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40 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the layers of general skin?
Top layer - epidermis

Middle layer - dermis

bottom layer - subcutaneous fatty tissue/(hypodermis)
What is the name of the additional skin layer on palmar and plantar surfaces?

Where is its location?
Stratum lucidium - is located within the epidermis between the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum
All epidermal surfaces are devoid of what?

Where does skin cell death occur?
blood vessels

straum granulosum
The epidermis consists of ____ layers except in the palmar and plantar regions, where there are _____.
4 layers: stratum corneum, s. granulosum, s. spinosum, s. germinativum
Where are the fingerprints?
dermal layer, which is 20X thicker than epidermis. This layer also provides strength for the skin.
What are the types of glands in the skin?
1. sebaceous glands - oil glands...found everywhere except plantar and palmar surfaces

2. apocrine glands - sweat glands
Which glands are found in axillae, genital, rectal areas, nipples and naval areas?
apocrine
Which sweat glands are found everywhere in your body?
eccrine, which open directly onto the skin's surface
What is the name of a dark black dense hair?
terminal hair
What is the name of normal thin body hair?
vellus hair
What is the region of the nail that is under the cuticle?
What is its purpose?
matrix - it is aa keratinized horny layer of cells that arise from undifferentiated epithelial tissue
cyanotic
blue
What are the assessment points during inspection of skin?
Inspection of skin
a) color
b) bleeding/ecchymosis/vascularity
c) lesions
Dark skinned persons may normally have a _______ of the gums, tongue borders and lining of the cheeks. The ________ may appear _______ or variegated in color.
freckling

gingive may appear blue
Where is cyanosis a problem in all people?
fingers, lips or mucous membranes
A grayish cast is seen in _______ patients. It is associated with chronic _______ along with retained urochrome pigments.
renal

anemia
Hyperemia
sustained brigh red or pink coloration in light skinned individuals. It is caused by dilated superficial blood vessels, increased blood flow, febrile states, local inflammation, or alcohol intake.
Polycythemia
Increased number of red blood cells. Pt can be cyanotic but with adequate oxygenation. Pt has ruddy appearance
Vitiligo
marked by patchy symmetrical areas of white on the skin
Ecchymosis
bruising
Violaceous discolorations of less than 0.5cm in diameter. Interesting to note:??
Petechiae - do not blanch. In dark skinned people look for them in mm and axillae.
What do petechiae indicated?
-increased bleeding tendency
-embolism
-intravascular defects
-infections
Presence of confluent petechiae or confluent ecchymosis over any part of the body.
Purpura
What does Purpura indicated?
hemmorrhage into the skin and can be caused by decreased platelet formation
What are you looking for when you palpate the skin?
moisture
temperature
tenderness
texture
turgor
edema

mtttte
What are you looking for when inspecting the hair?
color, distribution, lesions
What are you looking for when palpating the hair?
texture
What are you looking for when inspecting the nails?
color, shape, configuration
What are you looking for when palpating the nails?
texture
tendernin labess
What type of locations can lesions have?
localized

regionalized

generalized
What type of elevation can lesions have?
flat or raised
What type of grouping can lesions have?
discrete, grouped, confluent, linear, annular, polycylic, generalized or zosteriform
What does discrete lesions mean?
individualized, separate, distinct

EX: INSECT BITES
What does confluent lesions describe?
lesions that merge and run together

EX: CHILDHOOD EXANTHEMA
What does "grouped" lesions describe?
lesions are clustered

EX: HERPES SIMPLES
What does "linear or serpiginous" lesions describe?
forms a line or snakelike shape

EX: POISON IVY, DERMATITIS, HOOKWORM
What does "annular" lesions describe?
lesions arranged in a circular pattern

EX: RINGWORM
What does "Polycyclic or targetoid" lesions describe?
arranged in concentric circles resembling a bull's eye

EX: DRUG REACTIONS< URTICARIA
What does "generalized" lesions describe?
scattered over the body
What does zosteriform lesions describe?
linear arrangement along a nerve root

EX: HERPES ZOSTER