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146 Cards in this Set

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Type of play when children play independently but among other children
parallel play
When does separation anxiety peak
12-18 months
When can an infant feed themselves
7 1/2 months
An attempt to control or change the situation, resisting another's attempt to control you, cooperating or complying with demands are examples of
active coping
What are stratefies to prevent or minimize separation
rooming in and use of an attachment object
Should be obtained for children over 7 who are not of majority
assent
What are the stages of separation anxiety
protest, despair, detachment
For a child over the age of three, you do this to assess the ear
pull pinna up and back
Breast bud stage-small area of elevation around papilla; enlargement of areolar diameter; sparse growth of hair extending along the labia
Tanner stage 2
Further enlargement of breast and areola with no separation of their contours; darker hair spread over entire pubis in triangle
Tanner stage 3
Projection of areola abd papilla to form a secondary mound; denser hair and adult distribution, but still restricted to pubic area
Tanner stage 4
mature breast configuration projection of papilla; hair adult in quantity etc. spreading to aspect of thighs
Tanner stage 5
Initial enlargement of scrotum and testes; reddening of skin, growth of long hair on base of penis
Tanner stage 2
Initial enlargement of penis; hair spread further over entire pubis
Tanner stage 3
Increased size of penis and glands; hair more abundant but restricted to pubic area
Tanner stage 4
Testes, scrotum and penis adult size, hair spreading to inner surface of thigh
Tanner stage 5
Where do you assess heart rate on an infant
apical pulse
What should never be assessed on a young child without the parent present
genitalia
Pain scales to measure pain in nonverbal children
FLAAC, Oucher, NIPS, Wongs Face scale
Disease that is teratogenic to the infant
rubella
What is the incubation period for mumps?
14-21 days
How are pertussis and chicken pox transmitted?
droplets
A disease that has been eradicated from the world by immunizations
polio
What is the chain of infection
pathogenic microorganisms, reservoir, means of escape, mode of transmission, means of entry, and host susceptibility
Refers to an addition or increase in structure or change in quantity
growth
A process of strategies or flexible approaches for dealing with stressors
coping
What are S&S of poor nutrition
low weight, pallor, lethargy, dry skin, listless eyes
What are items a child can use for gratification and active coping
mom/dad, play, pacifier, blanket
When are polio immunizations given
2 mo., 4 mo., 6-18 mo., usually at 12-15 motnhs
What are teo immunizations that require 3 series of shots?
Hep B and HPV
Three new vaccines recommended for 2007
rotavirus, HPV and TDAP
What is documented for a vaccine?
route, site, date, VIS given, parental consent, vaccine lot #, manufacturer, signature of who gave it
What is the immunization recommended for children who are 2-23 months
pneumococcal
Language for birth to 18 months
Sound
Coos
Monosyllables
Words
What is the extent of a 12 month old speech
2 syllables and three words
Gross Motor for birth -18 months
Lift head
Rollover
Sit
Crawl
Stand
Walk
age of crawling
9 months
age of standing holding
9 months
age to stand alone
14 months
age to stoop and recover
14 months
age to walk well by
15 months
Fine Motor for birth- 18 months
follows with eyes
grasp
bang 2 cubes
put block in cup
build tower of blocks
scribbles
imitates line
copy picture
Social skills for birth-18 months
Smile
Recognize caregiver
stranger anxiety
work for toy
feed self
drink form cup
separation anxiety
use silverware
Toddler Social stage
shame and doubt versus autonomy
Types of play for children
onlooker
solitary
parallel
associative
cooperative
Refers to an increase complexity or specificity related to functioning; qualitative change
development
Causes of developmental delays
transient (illness)
prematurity
CNS
developmental directional trends
cephalocaudal
proximodistal
differentiation(simple to complex)
sensitive periods
What are the most important determinants of height and weight
genetica and nutrition
weight of average child doubles by:
triples by:
quadruples by:
6 mo.; 1 year; 2 1/2 years
How far away should you hold object for baby to see?
18 inches
Erikson social for infant
trust vs mistrust
Erikson social for preschooler
initiative vs guilt
Erikson social for school age
industry vs inferiority
Erikson social for adolescence
identity vs role confusion
Cognitive development stages of Piagets
sensorimotor
preoperational
concrete operations
formal operations
What is the developmental assessment chart called
Denver II
vitals for 1-3 days old
65/41
100-180
35
vitals for 1-3 month old
95/58
100-220
25-30
vitals for 3mo-2 year old
95/58
80-150
25-30
vitals for 2-5 year old
101/57
70-110
21-25
vitals for 10 years and above
120/80
55-90
16-19
What do you assess first on a newborn?
heart sounds and heart rate
Would you want to complete the assessment before doing vital signs?
yes
How do you approach a two year old?
down to eye level, and quickly
Orientation of 2 year old
Ax1
orientation of 4 year old
Ax2
orientation of 9 year old
Ax3
How do you chart the narrative assessment of a newborn?
alert, awake, crying, no hgih pitch squeel, fontanelle
How do you chart the narrative assessment of an asthma patient?
lung quality, adventitious noises, accessory muscle use
National Cholesterol Program recommends no more than __ calories form fat
30%
Signs of Anorexia or Bulimia
calluses on knuckles
cessation of menses
dull thinning hair
What is the only vaccine that may be given before 6 weeks of age?
Hep B
What is considered to be a possible side effect of immunizations?
autism
Preschool immunization requirements
5 DTAP
3 HepB
HIB
2 MMR
3 Polio
Rotovirus
School immunization requirements
5 DTAP
3 HepB
2 MMR
5 Polio
Varicella
When do you not give a vaccine
no consent
acute illness with high fever
Where are most immunizations given
anteriolateral thigh
Which vaccines are given subQ?
IPV, MMR, Varicella
Vaccine recommended in certain states; spreads in areas where poor sanitary conditions or good hygiene not observed
Hepatitis A
How are measles transmitted?
droplets
symptoms of measles
cold symtoms, fever, spots inside mouth, encephalitis, pneumonia, otitis media
Icubation period for measles
10-20 days
Infection period of measles
4 days before-5 days afer rash starts
How is rubella transmitted
direct contact
what is the incubation period for rubella
14-21 days
what is the infection period for rubella
7 days before- 5 days after rash
Infants with congenital rubella are at risk for
mental retardation, deafness, blindness, and heart disease
How are mumps transmitted
direct contact
what is the incubation period for mumps?
14-21 days
What is the infection period for mumps
day before and day after neck edema
Complications of mumps include
unilateral deafness, encephalitis, myocarditis, arthritis
What is aka whooping cough
pertussis
incubation period for pertussis
7-10 days
how long does pertussis last?
1-2 weeks
How is diptheria transmitted
direct contact
what is the incubation period for diptheria
2-5 days
what is the infection period for diptheria
2-4 weeks
Complications of diptheria
swelling of lymph nodes in neck, cold symptoms, fever, white membrane on back of tonsil
what is aka lock jaw
tetanus
how is tetanus transmitted
bacteria spores through open wounds/direct contact with blood stream
What is HIb
septicemia causing vasculitis and gangrene
How is varicella transmitted
oral, cutaneous, or anal involvement. Droplet contact with lesion
What is aka chickenpox
varicella
Are varicella scabs contagious?
no
What is the incubation period for varicella?
13-17 days
What is the infection period for varicella
1 day before-6 days after (crusted over)
What is important to know about varicella in adults?
Can lead to varicella zoster in immunosuppressed, leading to shingles
Can you get shingles form varicella?
no
Can you get varicella from shinglea?
yes
What vaccines are eradicated thorugh vaccines?
smallpox, polio, and nearly rubella
What is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis, bacteremia, and acute otis media in children?
pneumococcal
First time receiving influeza vaccine
6 mo-9 years; give 2 doses seperated by 4-6 weeks
When is influenza vaccine contraindicated?
if severly ill or allergic to eggs
What is rotavirus?
A virus causing vomiitng and diarrhea>> dehydration in infants
Rotavirus vaccine series
2m, 4m, and 6m.
Vaccines for adolescents
meningococcal and HPV
Approaches to prevention of injury
education
enforcement
engineering
Normal temperature for newborn
36.1-37.7 C
Norm temp for 1 year old
37.7 C
Norm temp for 2 year old
37.2
Normal temp for 6 year and bove
37.0 C
Temp conversion
F=
F= (C x1.8)+32
Temp conversion
C=
C= 0.556 x (F-32)
Fluid requirements for neonate (<72 hours)
60-100ml/kg
Fluid requirements for 0-10 kg
1000 ml/kg
Fluid requirements for 11-20 kg
1000 ml for first 10 kg+ 50 ml per additional kg
Fluid requirments for 21-30 kg
1500 ml for first 20 kg+ 25 ml per additional kg
high risk neonate caloric requirements
120-150 cal/kg
infant caloric requirement
100-120 cal/kg
1-2 year caloric requirement
90-100 cal/kg
2-6 year caloric requirement
80-90 cal/kg
7-9 year caloric requirement
70-80 cal/kg
10-12 year caloric requirment
50-60 cal./kg
Who needs airborne isolation?
measles and varicella
who needs special airborne isolation
tuberculosis
Who needs contact isolation?
rotovirus and RSV
Who needs droplet isolation?
influenza and pertussis
Immunizations at birth
Hepatitis
Immunizations at 4 months
RDHPI
Immunizations at 6 months
Hepatitis and RDHP (no I)
12-15 month vaccinations
HPIMV
15-18 month vaccinations
DTaP
Immunizations at 2 months
Hepatitis and RDHPI
All children at what age and weight must ride in a car seat?
under 4 years old and under 40 lbs
All children at what age and weight must ride in a rear-facing car seat?
under 1 year old and under 20 pounds