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64 Cards in this Set

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What is conjunctivitis?
redness, swelling of conjunctive, may be itchy

cause is bacterial or viral, may be allergic response or inflammatory response to chemical exposure
What is a hordeolum?
a sty

a small, superficial white nodule along the lid margin. Usually is an infection of a sebaceous gland of eyelid; causative m/o is usually bacterial: staph aureas
What is a chalaxion?
A chronic inflammatory granuloma of the sebaceous glad in the lid. It may evolve from a hordeolum. Treat with warm moist compress to encourage drainage.
What is blepharitis?
chronic bilateral inflammation of the lid margins. The lids are red rimmed with many scales or crusts on the lids and lashes. Pt complains of itching, burning, irritation and photophobia. May tx with abx ointment. Teach them to use proper hygiene and use baby shampoo to effectively soften and remove crusting.
What is keratitis?
inflammation or infection of the cornea that can be caused by a variety of m/o. Sometimes it is by HSV1. treated with ointments or nothing.
What is entropion?
when the eye lid folds in and the eye lashes rub against the eye
What is ectropion?
when the eye lids fold out (usually on the bottom) and there is a visable "red stuff" below the eye. happens in dogs a lot. droopy dog.
What is uvetitis?
used to describe inflammation of the uveal tract, the retina, the vitreous body or the optic nerve
What is endopthalmitis?
extensive intraocular inflammation of the vitreous cavity caused by many m/o

(en=in, inflammation deep IN th eye, IN the fluid)
What is panopthalmitis?
Inflammation of all the layers of the eye

(pan - layers and layers of pancakes)
What is myopia?
nearsightedness, where light focuses in front of the retina

(I can only see MY self)
What is hyperopia?
farsightedness
What is astigmatism?
uneven cornea which causes visual distortion
What is presbyopia?
normal aging in eye

(where you have to use reading glasses (like Michele b/c she is OLD...hahah! just kidding)
What is emmetropia?
normal vision (not myopia or hyperopia)
How should you speak/communicate/interact with a blind person as a nurse?
-talk directly to them and actually make eye contact
-say hello and goodbye when leaving the room
-orient them to the environment
-sight guided technique
What are the two types of eye injuries that are considered trauma?
blunt and pentrating/perforating
What are the first two interventions when a client has an eye injury?
assess what mechanism of injury

assure airway, breathing, circulation
What actually is a corneal ulcer?
necrosis of the cornea, or tissue loss of the cornea caused by infection
What can a corneal ulcer eventually lead to?
need for a transplant b/c of scar tissue formation
What are the tx for corneal ulcers?
abx, antiviral or antifungal drops q hour...aggressive

*Assess this person with a high priority!
What is another name for a corneal dystrophy?
keratoconus
What is keratoconus?
noninflammatory, bilateral disease that is inherited, but without a pattern

the anterior cornea thins and protrudes forward making a cone shape

the only sign may be blurred vision caused by astigmatism

sometimes a corneal transplant is done
What is the progression of keratoconus?
gradual bilateral vision loss...need a corneal transplant
What is keratoplasty?
a corneal transplant..harvested from a cadaver, rejection is low due to avascular state of the cornea
What are the interventions for a penetrating eye trauma?
stabilize the foreign object

elevate hOB

no coughing, sneezing, bending over or vomiting

assess pain, anxiety and drainage

tetanus

get history of allergies

IV, NPO
What are the interventions for a chemical injury to the eye?
irrigate with sterile water or sterile saline...not tap water
What are the interventions for PACU after eye surgery?
semi-fowlers fowlers
assess for bleeding & complications
patch
pain meds
vs
no coughing, sneezing, no Vomiting
What are the interventions for discharge teaching post eye surgery?
med instructions
s/s to report to MD (not itching or burning)
prevent increased IOP (no bending, lifting, constipation)

no NSAIDS or aspirin for 2-4 weeks

HOB up

UV protection, eye patch on for 24 hours
Cataracts have to do with what part of the eye?
lens
What is a simple description of a cataract?
opacity of the lens
What is the most common type of cataract?
senile
What (other than old age) can cause a cataract?
trauma, diabetes, drugs, radiation and UV exposure
What is the patho of how a cataract develops?
the lens gradually looses water and a decrease in oxygen dehydration happens which causes opacity
What will a patient with developing cataracts complain of?
blurred vision
decrease in color perception
photophobia (at night)
glare
When you assess a cataract patient, if you could look into the eye, this would be absent.
red reflex
A later characteristic complaint of cataracts is this.
diplopia
Before the ultimate surgery for cataract treatment, what can be done for the patient?
.new glasses (multiple times)
.increase light in area
.give them a magnifying glass
.changing lifestyle (like not driving at night)
Surgery for a cataract is considered the _________ ________.
only cure
What are the pre -op drugs for cataract surgery (and other eye surgeries)?
Mydriatics

Cyclopegics
What is a mydriatic?
dilates the eyes

(it has a D in it)
What is a cyclopegic?
paralyzes the eye

(has a P in it)
What is the most common cataract surgery called?
extracapsular extraction
(lens is lifted out w/o removing the lens capsule)
When you administer mydriatics to a patient, what should you do if you are a "nice" nurse?
turn down the lights...it causes serious photophobia
Always remember, block the ________ when giving eye drops.
punctal duct
A patient has an eye patch. Make sure you tell them to be aware of this situation related to safety.
They will not have depth perception, so they need assistance. Once the eye patch is removed, they will have depth perception, but it might take time for the vision in the operated eye to return.
What is retinopathy?
a process of microvascular damage to the retina
How does retinopathy progress?
slowly or rapidly
What is the result of retinopathy?
blurred vision and progressive vision loss
Both diabetic and hypertensive retinopathy have the same pathological result, which is....
o2 doesn't get to the retina

(hypertensive is b/c of vasoconstriction)
(diabetic is b/c of clumps of glucose in the blood)
What is the recommended provention of retinopathy?
maintain blood sugar or lower bp
What type of "level of severity" is a retinal detachment?
emergency

(This is a first priority assessment patient!!!)
What actually is a detached retina?
separation of the retina from pigmented epithelium
What is the progression of retinal detachment?
trauma or spontaneous

sudden onset and PAINLESS
What will a patient with retinal detachment complain of?
black spots or floaters, a "curtain" pulled over part of the vision fields
photophobia, visual disturbances
What are the conditions that can predispose someone to a retinal detachment?
old age, myopia, retinopathy, eye surgery
If a person has floaters, black spots in their vision, what are you thinking?
a torn retina
If a patient complains of a "curtain" that comes over their eye, what do you think of?
retinal detachment
What are the side effects of mydriatics?
may cause tachycardia and elevated bp, especially in elderly patient.
What are the two mydriatic drugs?
Mydfrin
Neo-Synephrine
What are the cycloplegic drugs?
tropicamide
cyclopentolate
homatropine
scopolamine
atropine**big one
What are the signs and symptoms that a nurse should teach a patient in regards to retinal detachment?
light flashes, floaters and a ring in the field of vision
What are the names of the surgeries that can be done for retinal detachment?
Laser photocoagulation
cryoretinopexy
scleral buckling procedure
draining of subretinal fluid
vitrectomy

(DON'T NEED TO KNOW THAT)
intravitreal bubble
What types of drugs would you expect to administer to a retinal surgery patient post op?
antibiotic (topical)
corticosteroid (topical)
analgesia
mydriatics