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165 Cards in this Set

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Incorporates rx finding into their decisions and their interactions with clients
evidence-based practice EBP
The collection and analysis of numeric information
Quantitative Research
Cornerstone of EBP; comprehensive rx info
Intergrative reviews
Designed to assess and documenet effectiveness of health care services
Outcomes research
World view; general perspective on the complexities of reality
Paradigm
Naturalistic inquiry
qualitative rx
General set of orderly, disciplined procedures used to acquire info
Scientific method
Evidence that is rooted in objective reality and gathered directly or indirectly through the senses rather than through personal beliefs or hunches; quantitative rx
Empirical evidence
Investigation or a rx project
study
designed to generate knowledge to guide clinical practice
clinical studies
Research team with a mixture of clinical, theoretical and methodological skills
Collaborative studies
Quantitative study people
Subjects/ study participants
Qualitative study people
Informatnts
Abstracts of particular aspects of human bx and characteristics
Concepts (quan)
Phenomena (qual)
Abstractions that are deliberately and systematically invented by researchers
Constructs
Systematic, abstract explanation of some aspect of reality
Theory
In quantitative sutdy use deductive reasoning; make predictions if theory was true
Conceptual model/ framework
Quan study; concepts are referred to as this like wt, anxiety level, body temp...
Variables
Presumed cause
IV
Presumed effect; what they want to understand
DV
The abstract or theoretical meaning of the concepts being studied
Conceptual definition
Defines how variables will be observed and measured
Operational definition
Pieces of info
data
Numerical info
quantitative data
Narrative descriptions
Qualitative data
Refers to the accuracy and consistency of info
Reliability
Soundness of the study's evidence; findings are congent, convincing?
Validity
Use of multiple sources or referents to draw conclusions about what constitutes the truth
Triangulation
Influence that produces a distortion in the study results
Bias
Rxers actively introduce an intervention or treatment
Experimental rx
Rxers collect data without making changes or introducing treatments
Nonexperimental rx
Seeks to describe and understand the key social psychological and structural processes that occur in a social setting
Grounded theory
Approach to thinking about what life experiences of poeple are like and what they mean
Phenomenology
Studying the patterns and experiences of a defined cultural group in a holistic fashion
Ethnography
ALL the individuals or objects with common, defining characteristics
Population
Subset of a population
Sample
Occurs when themes and categories in teh data become repetitive and redundant
Saturation
Reviewers are not told rxers' names and visa-vera
"blind" reviews
A conventional format for organizing content
IMRAD (introduciton, method, results and discussion)
Brief description of the study placed at the beginning of the journal article
abstract
Model for many of the guidelines adopted by specific disciplines; basis for regulations
Belmont report
Imposes a duty on researchers to minimize harm and maximize benefits
Beneficence
Researchers' duty to avoid, prevent, or minimize harm to study participants
Nonmaleficence
Menetary incentive offerd to encourage the participation of an ecomonically disadv group might be midely coercive
stipend
Researcher has fully discribed the nature of the study, person's right to refuse participation and researchers responsibilities
Full disclosure
The collection of info without participants' knowledge
Covert data collection
Risks anticipated to be no greater than those ordinarily encounttered in daily life
Minimal risk
When even researcher cannot link a participant with his or her data
Anonymity
Child's affirmative agreement to participate
Assent (7 +)
External review of the ethical aspect of a study by...
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Enigmatic, perplexing or troubling conditions
Research problem
Specific queries researches want to answer in addition to the reserach problem
Research questions
Articulates the problem to be addressed
Problem statement
Researcher's summary of the overall goal
Statement of purpose
Hypothesis that specifies not only the existences but the expected direction of the relationship b/w variables; says like are associated, is related...
Directional hypothesis
Does not stipulate the direciton of the relation; differ with...
Nondirectional hypothesis
State that there is no relationship b/w the IV and DV
Null Hypothesis
Statement of a predicted relationship relationship b/w two or more variables
hypothesis
Predicts the exisence of relationships
research hypothesis
Research reports which are descriptions of studies written by the researchers who conducted them
Primary source
Descriptions of studies prepared by someone other than the original researcher
Secondary source
Technique for intergrating quanitative resesarch finding statistically; treats findings as one piece of data
Meta-Analysis
The most basic entity on which the anlysis focuses; individiual studies
Unit of analysis
Qualitative; involves integrating qualitative research findings on a specific topic that are themselves interpretive syntheses of data (phenomenological, ethnographic and grounded study); involves interpretation
Metasynthesis
Written summary of the state of existing knowledge on a research problem
Lit review
Abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about how phenomena are interrelated; explains
Theory
Theory that accounts for a single phenomenon; inductive, empirically driven; "describes"
Descriptive theory
Deals with abstractions that are assembled b/c of their relevance to a common theme
conceptual model
Conceptual underpinning of a study
Framework
The four concepts are centered to models of nursing are...
Person, environment, health and nursing
Symbolic representations of the phenomena that depict a conceptual model through the use of symbols or diagrams
Schematic model/ conceptual models
Therotical frameworks from nonnursing disciplines are _______, but if they ahve been found to be productive they are __________.
Borrowed theories,
Shared theories
Experimenters consciously vary teh IV and then observe its effect of the DV
Manipulation
This design involves the observation of the DV at two points in time: before and after treatment
Pretest-Posttest
________ is a group of participants whose performance on a DV is used to evalulate the performance of the _______ group (the group receiving the treatment) on the same DV
Control group
Experimental group
Every participant has an equal chance of being included in any group
Randomization
Effects resulting from the manipulated variables
Main effects
Effects resulting from combining the treatment
Interaction effects
Broad class of design
Between-subject design
Same subjects are compared
within-subject design
Exposing participants to more than one treatment
Crossover design
Neither the subjects not those administering the treatment know who is in the experiemntal or control group
Double-blind experiemnts
Lack either randomization or control-group freatures; effort is introduced to make some controls
Quasi-experiments
No safegards are used for a control group
Preexperiental
Observational study; comparing two groups as they natually occur; when IV can't be manipulated or it is unethical
Nonexperimental
Collection of data at one point in time; fixed point in time
Cross-selection designs
Collect data at more than one point in time over an extended period
Longitudinal design
Samples from a population are studied over time
Trend studies
Undertaken to determine the subsequent status of subjects with a specified condition
Follow-up studies
Only subjects who are the same with respect to extraneous variables are included in the study; variables are not allowed to vary
homogeneity
Involves using info about subject characteristics (age and gender) to form comparison group
Matching
Ability of the design to detect true relationships among variables
Statistical power
Extent to which it is possible to make an inference that the IV is truly causing the DV
Internal validity
Occurrence of events concourrent with the IV that can affect the DV
History threat
Encompasses biases resulting from preexisting differences b/w groups
Selection threat
Arises from processes occurrring as a result of time (growth, fatigue) rather than the IV
Maturation threat
Loss of subjects during a study
Mortality threat
Generalizability of rx findings to other settings or samples, issue of great importance for those interenst in evidence-based pracice
External validity
A design that emerges as researches make ONGOING DECISIONS reflecting what has already been learned
Emergent design
Concerned with lived experiences of humans
Phenomenology
Culture, anthropology; human cultures
Ethnography
Human behavior
Ethology
Social settings; sociology
Grounded theory
Critique of society and with envisioning new possibilityes; action-oriented
Critical theory
Designed to assess the effectivenss of clinical interventions
Clinical trials
Clinical trials phase:
1
2
3
4
1. Pre-experimental design
2. Pilot test
3. Full experimental
4. descision to adopt treatment
Phase III uses______
Randomized clinical trial (RCT)
How well a program, treatment, practice or policy works
Evaluations
Designed to document the effectivess of health care services
Outcomes research
Obtains info regarding the prevalence, distribution and interrelationships of variables within a population
Survey
In-depth investigaitons of a single entity or a small number of entities
Case study
Examins methods of obtaining and analyzing the data and addresses the development, validation and evaluation of research tools or methods
Methodoloigcal research
Planned integration of qualitative and quantitative data within single studies or coordinated clusters of studies
Mixed method
Entire aggregation of cases that meet specified criteria
Population
Specify the characteristics that delimit the study population
Eligibility criteria
Entire population in which researcher is interested
Target population
Comptrises cases from the target population that are accessible to the researcher
Accessible population
Process of selecting a portion fo the population to represent the entire population
Sampling
Systematic overrespresentation or underrespresentation of some segment of the population
Sampling bias
Populaiton consist of subpopulation or _______ which are mutually exclusive segments of a population based on a specific characteristic (like gender)
Strata
When researchers select elements by nonrandom methods
Nonprobability sampling
Each element in the population has an equal, independent chance of being selected
Random selection
Involves random selection of elements from the population
Probability sampling
Involves the number of every kth person
Systematic sampling
There is a successive random sampling of units
Cluster sampling
Number of subjects in a sample
sample size
uses the most readily available or most convenient group of people
convenience sampling
Type of convenience sampling in which referrals for potential participants are made by those in sample
snowball sampling
Participants are handpicked based on teh researcher's knowledge about the population
Purposive sampling
Divides the population into homogeneous subgroups from which elements are selected at random
Stratified random sampling
Used in grounded study; guides them in selecting data sourcese that maximinze information richness
Theoretical sampling
Participants' responses to questions posed by teh researcher as in an interveiw
Self-report
Used when researchers have no preconceived view of the content or flow of info to be gathered
Completely unstructred interview
When researchers have a list of topics or broad questions
Semi-structured
Inverviews with groups of about 10 or more people
Focus group interview
Narrative self-disclosures about individual life experiences
life histories
Qualitative method; thinking, problem solving, decision making; audio-recording devices
Think aloud methods
Method of gathering peoples bx by examining specific incidents relating to the bx under study
critical incidents technique
Questions in whcih responce alternatives are pre-specified by the researcher; either yes or no or complex expressions of opinion
Close-ended questions
Respond to question in their own words
Open-ended questions
Just yes or no
Dichotomous Question
Device designed to assign a numeric score to people to place them on a continuum with respect to attributes being measured
scale
Consists of several declarative statements that express a viewpoint or topic
Likert scale
A person's total score
summated rating scale
Used to measure subjective experiences; pain, fatigue, n...
visual analog scale
Brief descriptions of situations to which respondents are asked to react
Vignettes
Participants are presented with a set of cards on which words, phrases or statements are written
Q sort
Represent the observer's efforts to record info and also to synthesize and understand the data
Field notes
Daily record of events and converstaions
log
Involves the selection of time periods during which observations will occur
Time sampling
Selects integral bx or events for observation; requries researchers to either have knowledge about the occurrence of eents or be in a position to wait for the occurrence
Event sampling
Rules for assigning numeric values to qualities of objects to designate the quantity of the attribute
Measurement
______= True score +/- error
Obtained scores
Consistency with whcih an instrument measures the attribute
Reliability
A numeric index of a measure's reliability; range from .00 to 1.00; higher the value, the more reliable
Relilability coefficient
Degree to which an instrument measures what it is suppost to be measuring
Validity
Indicates how valid the instrument is; b/w .00 and 1.00; greater than .70 are desirable
Validity coefficient
What the insrument is actually measuresing
Construct validity
Ability of an instrument to correctly identify a "case"; to correctly screen in or diagnose a condition
Sensitivity
Instruments ability to correctly identify a "non case" or screen out those without the condition
Specificity
For qualitative data must have credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability
Trusworthiness
Confidence in teh truth of the data and interpretations of them
Credibility
Aim is to overcome the instrinsic bias that comes from single: method, observer and theory studies"
Triangulation
Refers to data stability over time and over conditions
Dependability
Refers to the objectibity or neutrality of the data; the potential for congruence b/w two or more independent people about the data's accuracy, relevance or meaning
Confirmability