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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is proliferation?
The process by which cells divide and reproduce.
What is differentiation?
The process whereby proliferating cells are transformed into different and more specialized cell types.
What is the balance of proliferation and apoptosis in determining tissue (or tumor) size?
In normal tissue, cell proliferation is regulated so that the number of cells aactively dividing is equivalent to the number dying or being shed.
But if more cells are being reproduced then dying, the tissue (or tumor) will grow.
Examples of well differentiated cells are....
An example of a poorly differentiated cell is....
A stem cell
How does Neoplasia differ from Hyperplasia?
Neoplasia is not controlled or coordinated, while hyperplasia is.
In hyperplasia, the replication will cease when there is no stimulus left, with neoplasia, the replication will continue.
What is anaplasia?
The lack of cell differentiation in cancerous tissue.
Highly differentiated cells are _____ malignant, and grow _____.
Less, slowly.
Malignant neoplasms are _____ differentiated, and grow _____.
Less, fast.
What is Metastasis?
The devlopment of a secondary tumor at a location distant from the primary tumor.
How can cancer metastasize?
lodge in the regional lymph nodes that received drainage from the tumor site...
cancer cells that survive break loose and gain access to the circulatory system...

A cancer cell must be able to break loose from primary tumor....
invade the surrounding extracellular matrix....
gain access to a blood vessel....
survive its passage in the bloodstream...
emerge from the bloodstream at a favorable location...
invade the surrounding matrix....
and begin to grow.
What is angiogenesis?
When tumor cells secrete tumor-associated angiogentic factors, which enables the development of new blood vessels in the tumor.
What are the etiologic factors of neoplasms?
Immunologic Mechanisms
Chemical Carcinogens
Oncogenetic Viruses
What is oncogenesis?
The genetic mechanism whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
What are proto-oncogenes?
DNA sequences in NORMAL cells that promote growth and replication.
Normally turned on for specific time in cell cycle.
Mutations turn them into oncogenes that operate continuously.
What are tumor supressor genes?
Inhibit the proliferation of cells in a tumor.
When INactive, there is unregulated growth.
(Ex: TP53 gene)
What are the steps of cancer cell transformation?
Initiation, Promotion, and Progression.
What takes place in the initiation step of cancer cell transformation?
involves the exposure of cells to appropriate doses of carcinogenic agent that makes them susceptible to malignant transformation. (irreversible)
What takes place in the promotion step of cancer cell transoformation?
involves the induction of unregulated accelerated growht in already initiated cells by various chemicals and growth factors. (reversible)
What take place in the progression step of cancer cell transformation?
the process whereby tumor cells acquire malignant phenotypic changes that promote invasiveness, metastatic competence, and autonomous growth.
What is cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome?
The "wasting away" effects of cancer.
What is paraneoplastic syndrome?
Manifestations produced by cancer in sites that are not directly affected by the disease
May be caused by elaboration of hormones by cancer cells.
What are does the warning sign CAUTION stand for?
Change in bowel or bladder habits
A sore that does not heal
Unusual bleeding or discharge
Thickening or lump anywhere
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
Obvious change in wart or mole
Nagging cough or hoarseness
What is STAGING of cancer?
Where the cancer is...
Tumor? Lymph Nodes? Metastasis?
What is GRADING of cancer?
What the cancer looks like...
Level of differentiation,
Frequency of mitosis.
Grades I through IV: higher number --> anaplasia (lack of differentiation)
What is staging and grading of cancer used for?
Determines the course of the disease and aid in selecting an appropriate treatment or management plan.