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30 Cards in this Set

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Infant (Birth to 6 months)
Suck Instinct
Extrusion Reflex
Immature GI Tract (food allergies)
Large Body Surface Area (Fluid requirements)
High Metabolic Rate
Prenatal Iron Storage.
Infant (6 to12 months)
More mature GI.
Tooth Eruption.
Dimished Extrusion Reflex.
Swallowing Coordinated.
Improved Eye-Hand Coordination.
Pincer Grasp.
Birth Weight doubles by 6 months.
Birth weight triples by one year.
Continue breast milk or formula for one year.
Introduction of Solid Foods
When infant is developmentally ready at 4 to 6 months of age.
Sequence of Solid Foods.
Rice Cereal (high in iron; whole grain.
Fruits and Vegetables.
Meats.
Citrus Fruits.
Toddlers feeding Guidelines
Groth slows (gains 4 to 6 lbs 2nd year)
Autonomy
Ritualism
Food Jags
Eating habits established in 1s 2-3 years have lasting effects.
Daily Calcium Requirements
Age 1 to 3 years
500mg
Daily Calcium Requirements
Age 4 to 8 years
800mg
Daily Calcium Requirements
Age 9 to 18 years
1300mg
Daily Calcium Requirements
Age 19 to 50 years
1000mg
Daily Calcium Requirements
Age 51 plus
1200mg
Malnutrition
Undernutrition
Overnutrition
Groups at Risk of Malnutrition
Lower socioeconomic groups
Children with malabsorptive disorders
Children born to vitamin deficient mothers
Children exposed to minimal sunlight.
Those who adhere to strict vegetarian diet.
Children whose parents lack education.
Premature infants.
Children with increase energy needs.
Children with decreased energy needs.
Depenedent feeders.
Those with food allergies.
Those who take medications that interfere with digestion/absorption.
Macrobiotic diet
Most severe Main food: brown rice and cereals.
Kwashiorkor
Protein deficiency with adequate calories.
Symptoms: Wasted extremities
Abdominal distention
dry, scaly skin
depigmentation (reddish tint)
alopecia
blindness
diarrhea
irritability
apathy
edema
Marasmus
Portein and caloire deficiency
Symptoms: gradual wasting
atropy of tissues
wrinkled,flabby skin
lethargy
prostration dissease/infection
Treatment for Kwashiorkor and Maramus
Protein
Vitamins/minerals
Calories
Electrolytes
Hygiene care (handle gently)
Rest
Developmental stimulation
Vitamin D Deficiency
Rickets
Vitamin D needed for calcium and phosphorus absorption.
Symptoms: Bow legs, knock knees, thick wrists & ankles, poorly calcified teeth that may be late to come in , softening of cranial bones, enlargement of frontal area delayed closure of fontanels, scoliosis, kyphosis, kordosis, tetany and seizures.
Vitaminn C Deficiency
Scurvy
Vitamin C needed for protein synthesis and collagen formation.
Symptoms: bleeding in joints and gums, bruisiing, anorexia, decreased healing, infection and anemia.
Nursing Care: Provision of foods high in vitamin C (fresh frutis and vegetables) education on cooking food to preserve vitamins oral hygiene and gentle handling.
Inborn Error of Metabolism
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Galactosemia
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Genetic disease (autosomal recessive)
Absence of enzyme necessary for metabolism of essential amino acitd phenylalanine.
Increase phenylalanine in blood and urine. Primarily affects blue eyed white children. Can cause mental retardation.
Guthrie Test
Newborn Screening for PKU
PKU Treatment
Strict dietary management for 6 to 8 years to keep phenylalanine at safe levels (can't eliminate because it is necessar for growth)
Formula: Lofenalac.
Galactosemia
Disturbance in carbohydrate metabolism.
Rare genetic disorder.
Automosomal recessive. Absence of liver enzyme that converts galactose to glucose, causing galactose accumulation.
Result of galactose accumulation
Hepatic dysfunction, cirrhosis, portal hypertension, splenomegaly, cataracts, cerebral damage and death.
Treatment of Galactosemia
Elimination of all milk and dairy products (including breastmilk)Use of soy formula and strict adherence to galactose free diet for first 7 to 8 years of life.
Preschooler: If child refuses to eat, consider
Eating between meals
Emotional distrubances
fatigue
imitation of adults with poor food habits
Illness or dental caries
Attention seeking or sibliing rivalry.
School Age Child Nutrional Facts
Slower period
Resources store for increased needs during adolescence.
Acquire taste for greater variety of food.
Usually eat better with fewer food fads
Can be helpful at mealtime.
Growth spurt for girls
10 to 12 years
Growth spurt for boys
12 to 14 years
Preschool nutrion tips
Increase food intake by:
Serve food in quiet environment.
Provide rest period before meal
Use colorful dishes
Provide comfortable seat at table.
Offer small frequent feedings.
Serve plain food.
Introduce new food gradually.