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38 Cards in this Set

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Name some foods that are good sources for sodium
salt (sodium chloride)
MSG
soy sauce, dairy products, processed food, lunch meat, bacon, snack foods, soups, pickles, olives, sauerkraut, tomato juice
Name some foods that are good sources for potassium
banana
cantaloupe
apricots
peaches
dates
raisins

avocados
navy beans
potatoes
squash
carrots
cauliflower
orange juice
tomato juice
Name some foods that are good sources for calcium
milk
cheese yogurt, iccream
dark green vegs
sardines
salmon
oysters
tofu
Name some foods that are good sources for magnesium
nuts and pb
egg yolk
milk
whole grains
bananas
citrus fruits
dark green vegs
legumes
seafood
chocolate
Name some foods that are good sources for phosphorus
dairy products
meats
fish
bran
wheat
nuts
What is definition of hypokalemia?
potassium under 3.5
K<3.5
What are some nutritional causes of hypokalemia?
malnutrition
starvation
crash diet
alcoholism
anorexia
licorice abuse
What are some non nutritional causes of hypokalemia?
stress, GI loss, NPO and potassium free iv fluids
diabetic ketoacidosis
hyperaldosteronism
adrenal tumor, cirrhosis CHF
What is a very important assessment of hypokalemia?
auscultate bowels sounds
What are two important clinical manifestations for hypokalemia?
hypoactive bowel sounds
paralytic ileus
How do you administer potassium therapy?
oral - dilute in water (to lower gastric irritation)

IV - dilute 20-40mEq in 1L of IV fluids to avoid irritating blood vessels and myocardium

NEVER administer bolus potassium
What administering IV potassium diluted in IV fluids, what is an important assessment?
IV site for phelbitis and infiltration
What is potassiums' role according to supplement 3 notes?
vital role in cell function and tissue function
What is a clinical manifestation of hypokalemia for the cardiac system?
tachycardia

cardiac arrest (severe hypokalemia)
What does low potassium do to digoxin?
increases sensitivity to it
What causes hyperkalemia?
oral and iv potassium supplements
What will hyperkalemia do to the cardiac system?
bradycardia - cardiac arrest

TOO MUCH POTASSIUM will SLOW your heart down
What do you administer for hyperkalemia?
Kayexalate, but first you restrict oral and parenteral K intake. You might have to use glucose or insulin to push the K into the cells
Too much potassium,

heart rate does what?
slows....bradycardia
Too much potassium,

urinary output?
decreased
Too much potassium,

what do you give?
Kayexalate
What is range for Magnesium?
1.5 to 2.5
Too little magnesium, patient will exhibit....
positive Chvostek's sign

positive Trousseau's sign

(just like with hypocalcemia)
What does hypomagnesemia do to muscles?
hyperreflexes

Increased tendon reflexes
When you think magnesium, think....
muscles
What will happen to muscles with hypermagnesemia?
decreased deep tendon reflexes
What is the MVP clinical manifestation of hypokalemia?
absent, hypoactive bowel sounds
Potassium down, heart rate is...
up

also increased sensitivity to digoxin
Too much salt, think....
seizure disorders
Too little salt, think...
seizure disorders
Hyponatremia can be caused from....
too little salt intake

too much water intake

anorexia

GI loss
What can cause hypocalcemia?
hypoparathyroidism (PTH is bone breaker, puts calcium in the blood....so if they remove the parathyroid gland on accidnet, then no PTH will be produced, and hypocalcemia)
What are clinical mans of hypocalcemia?
positive trousseau's sign

positive chvotstek's sign

(just like hypomagneseia)
Hypocalcemia...never forget that it causes...
tetany
What is hypercalcemia crisis?
cardiac arrest (decreased muscle tone and reflexes)
What is normal range of calcium?
8.5-11
What is normal range of PCO2?
35-45
What is normal range of HCO3?
24-28

22-26