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95 Cards in this Set

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How is N Acetyl Cystine helpful in respiratory infections?
The sulflhydryl groups bind and break peptides in mucous glycoproteins (they are mucolytic)
What are 2 nutrients that assist in cell membrane integrity especially in the lungs?
Vitamin E - stability of membranes
800 -1 000 IU
Vitamin A - structural & functional integrity
10 000 - 50 000
What are some anti-catarrhal foods?
Bromelain - ↓ mucous quantity in bronchitis/pneumonia and staphyloccocus aureus infections

Chicken soup

Fenugreek seeds - soften & dissolve mucous

Mustard seeds & onion - stimulate mucous elimination

Garlic - dissolves excess mucous
Name 3 cell types susceptible to zinc deficiency
Mast cells (Zn found in granules)

Fibroblasts (Zn produces collagen, extracellular matrix proteins and mediation of repair and remodelling of airways)

T-Cells (IL & cytokines)
Balance between CD4+ (helper) & CD8+ (suppressor) T cells
Why is Zn deficiency a problem in airway inflammation?
Zn is a co factor in delta 5/6 desaturase (fatty acid pathway)
Zinc supplementation results in less damage from hypoxia
What are alveolar type 2 cells required for?
Maintaining"dry" alveoli during water/ion transport
↓ surface tension during exhalation through surfactant secretion
Maintaining AOx homeostasis at the tissue/air interface through GSH transport
How may lipid perioxidation/oxidative stress be related to the lung?
It may cause pulmonary narrowing
Super oxide radicals (O2−.)l are acted upon by which enzyme?
Superoxide Dismutase
Which free radical is mainly acted upon by GSH in the lung?
Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2)
Name three antioxidant defenses of the lung and their cofactors
Glutathione related enzymes - GSH perioxidase, GSH reductase (Se)

Superoxide Dismutase (Zn/Cu & Mg)

Catalase (Ferric -Fe3 or Ferrous -Fe2)
What are recommended dosages for the Aox's Selenium, Zinc and vitamin C
Selenium 200-600mcg

Vitamin C 250-10 000 mg

Zinc 10-150mg
How is Quercetin helpful in respiratory illneses?
It is anti-viral, anti-allergenic, anti-odeamic and an inhibitor of NFkB
How does Vitamin C act upon the immune system
It regulates immune function by ↑ macrophage activity, lymphocyte production and antibodies (IgA, IgG, IgM)
How is Reishi Mushroom used in respiratory illness?
As an anti-viral and Anti-bacterial agent
How would you inhibit PG TXA and Leukotrine synthesis with foods?
Garlic, Ginger and Tumeric inhibit synthesis of these cytokines
What are the active compounds in Ginger, Garlic and Turmeric?
Ginger - gingerol & diarylhepatonoids

Garlic - Allicin

Turmeric - Cucrumin
Name 3 preventative measures against respiratory illness
Eliminate Junk Foods!

↑ fresh food intake (juices?)

Avoid "damp" foods - mucous forming
Name 3 more preventative measures against respiratory illness
Drink 2 L of filtered water/day

Asses protein intake

Identify food allergies/sensitivities
How does PAF affect asthma?
PAF (platelet activating factor) induces bronchial muscle contraction & smooth muscle hypertrophy generated by mucousal swelling/inflam
How do bradykinnins affect asthmatics?
↑ mucous production

Induce swelling (muscle contraction) and inflammation
How does inflammation effect airway epithelium?
Constant damage and repair leads to remodeling & overproduction of mucin, GF & pro-inflam cytokines (TNFἀ)
Inflam→cell damage→immune activation
What is cAMPs role in asthma?
cAMP inhibits platelet aggregation & constriction of smooth muscle - involved during inflam process PGE1 (which stimulates adenylate cyclase)
How do cAMP and adenylate cyclase interact?
Adenylate cyclase catalyses cAMP from ATP
Name 5 nutrients that support cAMP
Vitamin C (& bioflavonoids)
Quercetin
OPCs (pine bark or grapeseeds)
Catechins (green tea)
Zizyphus (chinese plum) raise cAMP
How does a metabolic defect in tryptophan breakdown result in asthma (in some patients)?
Try→5HTP→bronchoconstriction

↑ 5-HIAI→ ↑ asthma symptoms

5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid is a breakdown product of serotonin
Which nutrients may benefit patients with a defect of tryptophan metabolism?
B6 and restriction of dietary tryptophan
How would a patient best avoid asthmatic allergens?
Avoiding environmental allergens such as pollen, dustmites, pet fur, tobacco, pesticides
removing rugs, curtains, carpets, upholstered furniture
Using hypoallergenic bedding
Installing an air purifier
Considering an elimination diet
What nutritional management strategies would benefit asthmatics?
Gastric/pancreatic enzymes
Liver support - cruciferous vegetables
↑ ᾨ3 fish
↓ Saturated fats & hi GI foods
↑ alkaline forming foods - vegetables
A wholefood diet - eliminate refined CHOs, processed foods
How does B12 assist asthmatics?
1 000mg BD ↓ SOB, improves appetite, sleep & general health in sulfite sensitive asthmatics
name 3 nutrients (and dosages specific for nutritional management of asthma
Beta carotene 15-30mg (integrity of epithelial tract)

Mg 100-1 00mg (cAMP cofactor)

B6 100-200mg (theophylinne ↓ levels, Try metabolism)
List 5 treatment aims for respiratory illness
Eradicate bacterial infections

Reduce mucous production

Reduce inflammation and oxidative stress

Repair and restore mucous membranes

Support immune system - fibroblasts, mast cells, T cells CD4+ CD8+
What can factors compromis cardiac function?
Increased oxygen demand


Decreased O2 supply

Structural problems

Myocardial infections

Genetic/congenital influences
What doe C-reactive protein have to do with cardiac problems?
An increase in CRP occurs within 6 hours of tissue damage for 48hours+
How does inflammation effect myocardial function?
Increased fibrogenesis is the main influence on erythrocyte sedimentation rate
How does homocysteine impact on the cardiac system?
Increases the risk of abnormal blood clotting (Atherosclerosis ) and facillitate the deposition of cholesterol around the heart (Ischaemic Heart diseases e.g. angina)
How would excessive homocysteine be treated nutritionally?
B6 – PLP – 20-60mg/d

B12 – 500 – 1500ug/d

Folate – 400 – 1200ug/d
Name 6 nutrients and their dosages that would be helpful treating hypertension
B6 5-150mg reg homocysteine

B5 20-200mg needed4 AcetylCoA

Carnatine 400- 2000mg assist TG transport thru mitachondria

Ca 1000-2000mg ↓ intake

CoQ10 100-500mg ↓ inpatients

Arginine 400-600mg ⇈ NO
What is the diagnostic summary for hypertension?
Optimal: <120/80

Normal: 130-85mm/Hg

Borderline: 130-139/85-89

Hypertension Stage 1(Mild): 140-159/90-99

Hypertension Stage 2(Moderate): 160-179/100-109

Hypertension Stage 3 (Severe): >180/`110
List 5 treatment Aims for Hypertension
Reduce stress and advise relaxation techniques

Promote arterial elasticity and integrity to decrease hypertension

Reduce homocystine levels to reduce risk of CVD

Improve venous hemodynamics

Reduce oxidative stress
What are some lifestyle/dietary interventions appropriate for hypertension?
Avoid OH, caffeine

Increase flavonoid consumption (sulfur/selenium)

Reduce NaCl if necessary
how does c-reactive protein affect cardiac function ?
CRP increases within 6 hrs after tissue damage indicating ingery or inflam 48 hrs after occourance
name 7 Controllable risk factors in CVD health
Diabetes

Hypertension

Stress

Decreased saturated fat, refined CHO’s

Increased dietary fibre intake

Increased physcial activity

Reduce waight to decease TG's
What is the main influence on ESR
Fibrinogen
How do fish oils effect cardicat function
studies have shown fish oils to have a hypotriglyceridemic effect
Which nutrient has been shown to reduce LDL cholesterol by 5-15 per cent
psyllium at doses of 7g. The ↑ the cholesterol ↑ the effect
List five nutrients and their doses that can assist cardiac function
Taurine - 500mg (Myocardial Contractitity)


Folate - 400-1200ug (hyperhomocysteinemia)
CoQ10 - 150-300mg (Deficient)

Carnitine - 400-2000mg (TG transport & deficient)

Mg - 400-1200mg (Vasodiliatory , ↓ P aggregation, ↑ HR)
How does Homocysteine effect cardiac function
↑ risk of thrombosis ( Atherosclerosis )

Homocysteine ↑ fat deposition around Heart
List the three nutrients that will assist Homocysteine
B6 – PLP – 20-60mg/d

B12 – 500 – 1500ug/d

Folate – 400 – 1200ug/d
List five treatment aims that reduce hypertension ?
Reduce stress and advise relaxation techniques

Promote arterial elasticity and integrity to decrease hypertension

Reduce homocystine levels to reduce risk of CVD

Improve venous hemodynamics

Reduce oxidative stress
How does arginine help cardiac function ?
arginine synthesizes NO which acts as a vasodilator
What are some nutritional management strategies for hypertension ?
Increase vegetable and dietary fibre intake

Decrease refined CHO's and sugars - High GI

Increase celery in diet - diuretic effect

Decrease sodium chloride in diet if necessary

Decrease caffeine intake

Decrease alcohol consumption

Increase ascorbate intake especially fruits (citrus) & vegetables (broccoli)
What is the recommended dosage of calcuim ?
1000 - 2000 mg
Name three nutritional considerations for Hypotention ?
Increased K conpared Na

Adrenal exhaustion

Orthostatic BP
How does standing for long period effect hypotension ?
Can drop BP (squat occasionally to increase blood to the heart and decreasing blood to legs)
How does B5 deficiency effect Hypotension ?
Hypotension can be casued by B5 deficiency
What is the recommended dosage of tyrosine (precusor to A) ?
1 - 4mg
What is Angina Pectoris ?
Inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle (and occasionally other nutrients).
What are some short term aims for angina ?
Reduce levels of C-reactive protein/inflammation

Reduce oxidative stress
What are some long term aims for angina ?
Prevent further damage caused by the surgery

Support anti-oxidant status

Support connective tissue regeneration

Prevent further injury to blood vessels after repurfusion

Restores integrity of coronary vascular endothelium
How does Magnesium Aspartate citrate form assist in angina ?
Vasodilatory effect

Relaxes smooth muscle

Improves heart energetics

Decreases platelet aggregation
Improves heart rate
What is Hyperlipidemia ?
Elevated circulating lipids (cholesterol) causing damage to BV endothelium
List six nutritional stratergies to reduce Hyperlipidemia ?
Modify diet

Weight reduction in the obese

Reduction in excessive alcohol consumption

Cessation of smoking

Exercise

Reducing stress
What is Atherosclerosis ?
An arterial disorder of cholesterol plaques, fats and debris in the inner layers of medium and large sized arteries.
How does Lecithin assist in Atherosclerosis ?
It mobilizes fat from tissues
What two sources are Lipids derived from ?
Metabolic synthesis

Dietary intake
Name three treatment aims for Atherosclerosis ?
Reduce oxidative damage by preventing peroxidation of venous lipids and production of oxygen free radicals

Promote liver choleresis in order to manage cholesterol

Improve vessel tone and integrity by reducing lyosymal enzyme activity
oEpidemiological evidence indicates that Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is:
directly related to increases in total plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels.

increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels reduces risk
Which hear rea;ted disease dmeands treatment of dizziness, mental disorientaion and leg cramps to name a few
Atherosclerosis
What would be prescribed to support antioxidant status in Atherosclerosis?
–Vitamin C – up to 10,000mg/d

–Vitamin E – 400-800IU/d

–Lipoic Acid – 100mg/d

–CoQ10 – 100mg/d

–N-Acetylcysteine 1,500mg/d

–Support SOD with Mn, Zn and Cu
What nutrients and their doses could be prescribed to support blood lipid control?
–Inositol Hexaniacinate – 250-500mg/d

–Vitamin E – 400-800IU/d

–EPA/DHA – 3g/d

–L. Acidophillus – 1 teaspoon bd
How would u support vascular integrity?
Bioflavonoids – 500mg/d

Vitamin E – 400-800IU/d

Lysine – 750mg tds

Proline – 300mg/d

Glutamine – 1000mg/d
Which nutrients would be appropriate to decrease inflammation in Atherosclerosis?
Quercetin – 500mg/d

Bromelain – 350mg tds

Vitamin C – up to 10,000mg/d

Bioflavonoids – 500mg/d

EPA/DHA – 3g/d
Which nutrients can be prescribed to support hear energetics?
Acetyl- L- Carnitine – 200-800mg/d

Magnesium – 600mg/d

Potassium - 100mg/d

CoQ10 – 100mg/d
How does vitamin B5 support atherosclerosis?
It is a substrate for Acetyl CoA and increases heart energetics
Which componenet of which food/drink is helpful in heart energetics?
Resveratrol in Red wine and grape juice
Name 3 phytonutrients which can assist Atherosclerosis
Lycopene (in tomatoes and capsicums)

Catechins (Black and green teas)

OPC’s (pine bark and grapeseeds)

Red rice yeast extracts

Legumes, oatbran and ricebran, psyllium and guar gum extracts
How do phytonutrients impact on heart health
Blood pressure and platelet aggregation is reduced

Tissue Aox & lipid status, as well as myocardial energetics/mechanics are improved
List 5 lifestyle interventions to be considered in atherosclerosis
Regular exercise

Stop smoking

Decrease consumption of stimulants – caffeine

Decrease stress

Increase dietary fibre, particularly soluble fibre
What is the ateiolgoy of varicose veins
Standing for long periods

Low fiber diets increasing straining with defecation ( ↑ BP)

Depletion of connective tissue supporting nutrients
How does vitamin C assist with varicose veins?
Co-factor for lysyl hydroxylase and prolyl hydroxylase, required for synthesis of hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline, respectively. Antioxidant. (collagen synthesis)
How does vitamin E assist with varicose veins?
Mixed tocopherols have been shown to reduce the pain of VV
What are three nutrients that can be prescribed for VV?
Bromelain 350-600mg (breaks down fibrin (deposited in tissue near VVs)

N-Acetyl-Glucosamine 500-1500mg (Synthesis of glycosaminoglycans required for ground substance of collagen and elastin)

Zinc 30-80mg (improves BV strength)
Name two cofactors required for collagen synthesis
Copper 10mg

Managanese 50mg
How does rutin (and other bioflavonoids) effect VV's
Inhibit breakdown of ground substance and increase vascular tone

Act as antioxidants and antti-inflams
Name the 7 pertinent treatment aims for VV's
Decrease venous pressure (standing/defecation
reduce risk of DVT

Improve vessel tone and integrity


Improve nutritional status to promote connective tissue maintenance and collagen synthesis

Reduce pain

Reduce inflammation (fibrin - Fibrinogen is the main influence on the erythrocyte sedimentation rate)

Improve blood viscosity

Repair endothelium
How does dopamine act in the SNS?
Involved in activating fight, flight, fright responses e.g. increased heart rate, increased adrenal hormone secretion.
What do decelerated GABA levels result in?
?

Increased excitatory NTM to function by allowing allow more Na+ particles to enter the neuron thus generating the excitatory effect
WHat are the somatic symptoms of anxiety
Sweating palpitations chest pain

Breathlessness

Headache

Dizziness

Diarrhea

Frequency of micturition

Initial insomnia

Poor concentration
Which nutrients are especially depleted in stress?
B group vitamins, C and zinc which are cofactors in numerous pathways?
How does shallow breathing effect metabolism?
Aerobic metabolism (dependant on oxygen) is compromised and the anerobic pathway becomes most prevelant increaseing lactic acid and decreasing blood pH
This perpetuates the cycle causing more stress
What are some nutritional considerations for Anxiety disorders?
Remove stimulating foods

Identify food allergies/sensitivities

Maintain high quality protein intake

Consume low GI foods

Eat smaller more frequent meals
For anxiety you would Improve sleep patterns by...
supplementing with Mg & Ca to control cellualr membrane signalling systems in the NM synapses
Deep breathing exercises help anxiety by...
increasing O2 to cells and removing excess build up of CO2 in the blood
Name to other helpful strategies for anxiety
Relaxation techniques – gentle exercise, meditation, yoga

Refer client to psychotherapy or counseling
An increase or decrease in GABA is helpful in treating anxiety?
increase