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37 Cards in this Set

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Anabolic reactions
require energy and combine
simple compounds into complex compounds.
Catabolic reactions
release energy and break large
molecules into smaller one.
Coenzymes
Complex organic molecules
that work with enzymes to facilitate
the enzyme’s activity.
ATP
high energy compound used to 1) store
energy and 2) yield energy
Aerobic:
Reaction using
oxygen
Anaerobic
Reaction which doesn’t use oxygen
Vitamin
Organic compound (made mainly of
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen)
• Essential nutrients (must be
consumed in the diet, not made by
body)
B Vitamins
Act as coenzymes
- In reactions that
1) Release energy from food
2) Regulate metabolism
- In cell multiplication
1) Red blood cells
2) Cells of the GI lining
B vitamins and the
Electron Transport Chain
Niacin
Ribolavin
(vit b deficiency) glossitis
smooth, glossy tongue
due to atrophy of the tissue
(vit b deficiency) Niacin
Pellagra - Diarrhea,
dermatitis, dementia, death
(vit b deficiency) Thiamin
Beriberi - Muscle wasting and
nerve damage, sometime edema
(vit b deficiency) Riboflavin
Ariboflavinosis - Sore throat,
swollen mucous membranes
Folate
Involved in DNA synthesis, amino acid
metabolism
- Helps prevent heart disease and
cancer
- Critical for cell division of very early
embryos
- Critical for formation of neural tube
in developing fetus
Folate deficiency - Anemia:
not enough red blood cells present or
properly functioning
- GI tract deterioration
folate deficiency - Spinal bifida:
Improper development of
spinal chord in fetus
Antioxidants
Chemicals that protect cells from
damage by oxidation
• Oxidation is the loss of electrons
from a molecule
Free Radicals
•Free radical: an atom that has an unpaired
electron.
•Free radicals are highly reactive and can
cause damage to molecules in the cell.
Collagen
Structural protein
• Makes up connective tissue, such as
skin, tendons, ligaments, muscles etc
• Foundation for bones and teeth
Minerals
Minerals are elements, can be found on
the periodic table
Inorganic (in chemical sense)
Not broken down during digestion nor
destroyed by heat or light
Major minerals
Minerals that are required in
our diet at amounts greater than 100mg/day
Trace minerals
Minerals that are required in
our diet at amounts less than 100mg/day
Goiter:
Iodine Deficiency: Enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hemoglobin
Oxygen-carrying protein
found in our red blood cells

Iron Binds and carries oxygen in hemoglobin.
• Proof
amount of alcohol in a serving
100 proof = 50% alcohol
80 proof = 40% alcohol
alcohol dehydrogenase
– enzyme which facilitates the breakdown alcohol (Stomach)
Supplement
A pill, capsules, tablet, liquid or powder
that contains vitamins, minerals, herbs,
phytochemicals, or amino acids
Heat stroke
A potentially fatal
response to high temperature
characterized by failure of the body’s
heat-regulating mechanisms
Water Loss
• Most is lost through urine
– Controlled by kidneys
exhalation
Some is lost through the lungs during
(sweat)
Some is lost through the skin
feces
water loss
Metabolic water
is a product of many
chemical reactions in the body and
contributes 10-14% of the body’s
needs
Dehydration
Depletion of body fluid that
results when fluid excretion exceeds fluid
intake
Electrolyte
A substance that
disassociates in solution into
positively and negatively charged ions
and is thus capable of maintaining an
electrical charge
Osmosis
The movement of water across a
membrane toward the side where the
solutes (electrolytes) are more
concentrated
Hypertension
a chronic condition
characterized by high blood pressure