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49 Cards in this Set

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Theory that states organizational performance can be enhanced by matching an organizations structure to its environment.
contingency theory

ex patients, third-party payers, regulators, competitors, personnel, equipment and pharmaceuticals
Theory that states the life cycle of an organization is fully dependent on its adaptability and response to changes in its environment.
chaos theory
Theory that focuses almost exclusively on the structure of the formal organization. It is built around 4 elements: division & specialization of labor, chain of command, organizational structure, and span of control
classical theory
assumes that individuals are motivated by internal drives and impulses and that they need to be left alone to make decisions about how to complete work; the leader provides no direction or facilitation.
laissez fair leadership
assumes that individuals are motivated by internal drives & impulses, want active participation in decisions, and want to get the task done; the leader uses participation and majority rule in setting goals and working toward achievement
democratic leadership
assumes that individuals are motivated by external forces, such as power, authority, and need for approval; the leader makes all the decisions and uses coercion, punishment, and direction to change followers' behaviors & achieve results
autocratic leadership
assumes that employees are motivated by external forces. this leader trusts neither followers nor self to make decisions and therefore relies on organizational policies and rules to identify goals and direct work processes.
bureaucratic leadership
suggests basis of leadership is on the situation or environment and the behaviors of leaders are in response to the situation
situational leadership
based on the philosophy that nursing practice is best determined by nurses.
an organizational paradigm based on the values of interdependence and accountability that allows nurses to make decisions in a decentralized environment.
shared governance
leadership style that shares information & decision-making w/all employees, seeks input from followers to aide in setting goals & making decisions.
Seeks to empower employees
transformational leader
the goal itself causes a person to expend effort, not rewards or outcomes basked on performance.
goal setting theory
involves personal competence, which includes self-awareness, and self-management, and social competence, which includes social awareness and relationship management that begins w/authenticity.
emotional intelligence
emphasizes the role of rewards and their relationship to the performance of desired behaviors. people react deliberately and actively to their environment.
expectancy theory
steps in decision making
1. identify the problem
2. establish criteria to evaluate potential solutions
3. search for alternative solutions & options
4. evaluate alternatives & options
4. evaluate alternatives & options
5. select an option
6. evaluate solution - is it working?
advantage of group decision making
more successful -- everyone buys in
disadvantages of group decision making
takes more time
unequal power
group think
premature concurrence
mind guards (tunnel vision)
steps of problem solving process
1. define the problem
2. gather information
3. analyze information
4. develop solutions
5. make a decision
6. implement the decision
7. evaluate the solution
advantages of group problem solving
group collectively possesses greater knowledge than any single member
group members have a variety of training & experiences on which to draw
It increases the likelihood of acceptance & understanding of the decision
disadvantages of group problem solving
takes time & resources
may involve conflict
power struggle may occur
group think (similar biases)
examples of cost conscious nursing practice
share budget reports at meetings
label cost of items
use the right product for the right purpose
a budget worksheet listing expense items on separate lines that is usually divided into salary & non-salary expenses
incremental (line-by-line) budget
budgetary approach that assumes the base for projecting next year's budget is zero; managers are required to justify all activities and every proposed expenditure
zero-based budget
a budget in which budgeted amounts are set regardless of changes that occur during the year
fixed budget
a budget developed w/the understanding that adjustments to the budget may be made during th year
variable budget
the organizations statement of expected revenue & expenses for the upcoming year
operating budget
7 examples of time wasters
1 doing too much
2 inability to say no
3 procrastination
4 complaining
5 perfectionism
6 disorganization
7 too much information gathering
5 steps of the delegation process
1 define the task
2 decide on delegate
3 determine the task
4 reach agreement
5 monitor performance & provide feedback
5 rights of delegation
right task
right circumstances
right person
right direction
right supervision/evaluation
the stress, surprise, and disequilibrium experienced when shifting from a familiar culture into one whose values, rewards, and sanctions are different
reality shock
the perception that an individual has used up all available energy to perform the job and feels that he or she doesn't have enough energy to complete the task
burnout
occurs when an individual has 2 competing roles, such as when a nurse manager both assumes patient care and needs to attend to leadership duties
role conflict
the frustrations that result from unclear expectations for one's performance
role ambiguity
the habit of focusing on the negatives at the expense of the positives
deficiency focusing
the belief that it is imperative or necessary that a particular task be done by a specific person
necessitating
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - Case
wholistic, whole system
cons
could be expensive
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - functional "based on training"
efficient at task assigned, economical
cons:
fragmented care, emotional needs not always met
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - team approach
RN oversees holistic care; job satisfaction; patient satisfaction
cons:
time consuming
burden for team leader
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - total patient care (ICU)
better patient care, decreased complications
cons:
costly
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - primary care (same nurse throughout stay)
high continuity of care, RN autonomy, patient satisfaction
cons:
could be expensive
high RN accountability
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - modular care (unit divided into groups)
can be more efficient
continuity of care
cons:
expectations do not always match abilities which leads to increased stress, costs
pros & cons of nursing care delivery system - partnership model (RN & NA)
RN oversees holistic care, job satisfaction, patient satisfaction, may be more efficient than team nursing
cons:
time consuming, burden for team leader, increased staff stress
purpose of mission statement
states why the organization exists
purpose of vision statement
broad conceptual view of what the organization desires to be and do
type of leader that strikes a bargain where each side benefits
transactional leader
aka exchange theory
management theory where value is given to the task, not skill of individual (piece work)
scientific mgmt theory
human relations theory that believes people don't want to work very hard so managers have to have strict rules -- stay on top of followers
theory x
human relations theory that believes that work itself is a motivator and people want to do well.give guidance & support
theory y
human relations theory that has focus on involvement & participation of workers - front line people incorporated in decision
theory z
3 questions used in Vroom-Yetton Model of Decision making some leaders may use
1 is all the info available to make the decision
2 is the staff's acceptance of the decision required for effective implementation
3 would the group make a decision the leader can live with?