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35 Cards in this Set

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Types of neurons formed by neural crest cells (2)
Sensory neurons & Postganglionic autonomic neurons
All ganglia found in the PNS contain either __ or __ __ neurons and are derived from [neural crest cells/neural tube]
sensory or postganglionic autonomic neuronal cell bodies; derived from neural crest cells
Are chromaffin cells derived from neural crest cells or from the neural tube?
Neural crest cells
What are Schwann cells? What are oligodendrocytes? What is the difference between their processes and what is the benefit of it?
Schwann cells make myelin for PNS axons & Oligodendrocytes make myelin in the CNS. Unlike oligodendrocytes, individual Schwann cells myelinate only a small part of a single axon. This causes discontinuities in myelin where 2 Schwann cells meet called Nodes of Ranvier which allow for saltatory conduction.
What are 2 differences between MS and Guillain-Barre?
MS affects CNS myelinated axons and results in motor & sensory deficits. Guillain-Barre affects PNS myelinated axons and results in motor deficits.
Everything neural is derived from the [ectoderm/ mesoderm/endoderm], which also forms the __.
Ectoderm; skin
What induces formation of the nervous system?
The notochord
In the formation of the neural tube, first the __ thickens and __ forming the neural __, then the neural __. It then separates from the __derm and sinks into the __derm. The __ plate will form the sensory neurons and the __ plate will form the motor neurons. The __ __ develops outside of the neural tube.
ectoderm; invaginates; groove; tube; ectoderm; mesoderm; alar; basal; neural crest
Which part of the neural groove fuses first? When does this occur? What part fuses next and when? What part fuses last and when?
The middle part fuses first (Day 23), then the cranial part/Rostral neuropore (Day 25), then the caudal neuropore (Day 27)
What marker is present in any neural tube defect? What is the level of this marker in mothers with Down's Syndrome fetuses?
Alpha fetal protein; It is reduced in Down's Syndrome mothers
Alpha fetal protein is fairly nonspecific because it is present with any __ __ defect.
body wall
The rostral neuropore closes at Day __. Failure to close results in __, causing __ and increased __ __ __.
25; anencephaly; polyhydramnios; alpha fetal protein
Polyhydramnios
Too much amniotic fluid
The caudal neuropore closes at Day __. Failure to close results in __ and increased __ __ __.
27; Spina bifida; alpha fetal protein
What is required for neurulation to occur? When does it occur?
All germ layers must be present; Occurs at 1w post-gastrulation
Asymptomatic defect in vertebral arches; Tuft of hair on back; Normal alpha fetal protein
Spina bifida occulta; Tuft of hair occurs over missing processes
Vertebral defect with meninges projecting through; Elevated alpha fetal protein
Spina bifida meningocele
Vertebral defect with meninges and spinal cord projecting through; Elevated alpha fetal protein
Spina bifida meningomyelocele
Open neural tube on surface of back with dura & arachnoid protruding through; Elevated alpha fetal protein
Spina bifida myeloschisis
Explain the basic pathogenesis of spina bifida. What type of mater do the cysts contain?
Normally, the neural tube closes and induces bone (vertebral arches) to form around it. In spina bifida, the neural tube doesn't close and so doesn't induce bone formation, resulting in missing spinous processes at lower lumbar levels. Cysts contain dura & arachnoid mater.
What germ layer are the following derived from: inner ear, anterior pituitary (Rathke's pouch), parotid gland, lens of the eye?
Surface ectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: CNS, neurohypophysis, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, pineal gland?
Neural tube from neuroectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: retina, optic nerve?
Neural tube from neuroectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: adrenal medulla, sensory & autonomic ganglia, Schwann cells?
Neural crest from ectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: pigment cells, odontoblasts?
Neural crest from ectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: pia & arachnoid mater, pharyngeal arch cartilage?
Neural crest from ectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: parafollicular C cells, aorticopulmonary septum, endocardial cushions?
Neural crest from ectoderm
What germ layer are the following derived from: adrenal cortex, gonads & internal reproductive organs?
Mesoderm
What germ layer are epithelial linings of the GIT & fluid filled organs derived from?
Endoderm
What germ layer are parenchyma of organs and glands derived from?
Endoderm
What are the rolls of the ANS?
Motor innervation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
Where is the cell body for preganglionic motor neurons of the ANS?
in the CNS
Where is the cell body for postganglionic motor neurons of the ANS?
in a ganglion in the PNS
What is the origin of the sympathetic division of the ANS? Where do they synapse (2 names)? What do they innervate?
Thoracolumbar outflow, Spinal cord levels T1-L2. Synapse in the sympathetic chain ganglia aka paravertebral ganglia. Innervate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle and glands of the body wall & limbs, head, & thoracic viscera
Where is the origin of the thoracic splanchnic nerves? Where do they synapse? What do they innervate?
T5-L2. Synapse in the prevertebral ganglia (e.g., celiac, aorticorenal superior mesenteric ganglia). Innervate smooth muscle and glands of the foregut & midgut.