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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Diff between grey and white matter?
Grey amtter is soma
White is myelin (nerve tracts)
In PNS, what are ganglia? Nerves? Classify as white or grey matter.
Gnaglia: collectino of soma
Nerves: bundles of axons
Gang: gray
Nerves: white
In CNS, list and describe 4 structures that consist of grey matter. 2 for white matter.
Neural cortex (surface of brain), centers (collections of soma), nuclei (collections of soma), higher centers (most complex centers in brain)

Tracts (bundles of axons)
Columns (tracts that form a mass)
Label Diag 8
1. Dorsal root ganglion
2. Dorsal root
3. White matter
4. Central canal
5. Posterior median sulcus
6. Cervical vertebrae
7. Spinal nerve
8. Ventral root
9. Grey matter
10. Anterior median fissure
11.Thoracic vertebrae
12. Lumbar
13. Sacral
Label Diag 10
1. White matter
2. Grey amtter
3. Ventral root
4. Spinal nerve
5. Doral root
6. Dorsal root ganglion
7. Arachnoid mater
8. Pia mater
9. Dura mater
What is the role of the meninges and what are its three components (in order from outermost to innermost)?
What is dura mater composed of?
Physical stability, shock absorption.

Dura, arachnoid, pia

Dense CT
What does the epidural space contain?
Loose CT, B vessels, adipose tissue
Label Diag 9
1. Vertebral Body
2. Pia mater
3. Dura mater
4. Subarachnoid space
5. Arachnoid mater
6. Rami comunicantes
7. Sympathetic (auton) ganglion
8. Ventral root
9. Ventral ramus
10. SC
11. Adipose in epidural space
12. Ligament
13. Dorsal ramus
14. Dorsal root ganglion
Describe the contents and cellular composition of:
Simple squamous, collagen/elastic


Collagen, elastic, simple squamous
What kind of information is passed through the dorsal end of the SC? Ventral?
Dorsal = Sensory
Ventral = motor
Starting from noon, and going in a clockwise manner, describe either the direction of information or the type of information processed in the SC.
To brain (afferent)
From frain (efferent)
Both directions
What are the three layers of nerves? Which contains blood vessels?

What's a dermatome?
area of skin that is supplied with the nerve fibers of a single, posterior, spinal root.

A muscle or group of muscles derived from one somite and innervated by a single segment of a spinal nerve.
What is a nerve plexus?
Where are they most pronounced?
networks of interconnecting branching nerves.

Lumbar and Sarcral plexuses (pelvic girdle & leg)
Role of sensory neurons?
Deliver info to CNS (can stop at subconscious motor centers in brain, doesn't need higher order always)

Distribute commands to peripheral effectors

Interpet info and coordinate responses
Label diag 11.
1. Divergence
2. Parallel processing
3. Convergence
4. Serial Processing
5. Reverberation
Describe the general steps of a reflex arc.
1. Arrival stimulus and activation of receptor
2. Activation of SReceptor
3. Message sent rhough dorsal root, fires on IN which processes info
4. Activation of MN via ventral root
5. Response by effector
Define the following reflexes:
Genetically determined
Processing in SC
Processing in brain
Skeletel muscle contractions; superficial/stretch reflexes
Smooth, cardiac muscles, glands
One synapse
Multiple synapses
Describe the steps of a stretch response.
Stretch of muscle stimulates muscle spindle, activates SN, goes to MN in SC, (gets info processed at MN), activation of MN, contraction of muscle
What kind of response is the patellar reflex?
What kind of fiber comprises the muscle spindle?
Describe the AP and effect on extrafusal fibers when intrafusal fibers are at resting length, compressed, and stretched
Regular, normal muscle tone

Slowed, muscle tone decreases

Fast, MTone increases
Describe the flexor and crossed extensor reflexes after stepping on a tac.

What kind of synapse is this an example of?
Painful stimulus, activation of sensory receptor, synapse on IN in SC, inhibits extensors of tac foot and stimulates its flexors, but IN also synapes on MNs to stimulate extensor os opposing leg and inhibit its flexors (to stabilize)

If motor control involves a series of interacting levels, what is the lowest level? The highest?
Mono synaptic reflexes; brain centers that modulate/build motor patterns
Define reinforcement.

Can it be inhibited? Give ex.
Facilitation that enhances spinal reflexes.

Yes, Babinski reflex replaced by plantar reflex: adult: toes down, infant toes up