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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Disease
- A condition that is viewed from a pathophysiologic model, such as an alteration in structure and function.

- Problems from biomedical model; patho; doctor focus.
Illness
The human experience of symptoms and suffering, and refers to how the disease is perceived, lived with, and responded to by individuals and their families.
Commission of Chronic Diseases (1957) Definition of chronic illness
All impairments or deviations form normal which have hte following characteristics: permanency, residual disability, caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require rehabilitation and may require a long period of supervision, observation, or care.
Lubkin's Definition of Chronic Illness
The irreversible presence of accumulation or latency of disease states or impairments that involve the total human environment for supportive care and self-care, maintenance of function, and prevention of further disability.
Chronicity
Comprises all the vexing, weakening or troubling stressors of long duration associated with biological, cultural, economic, political or psychosocial imbalances which human systems possess and which influence all aspects of the system relationship with any other system. (Archbold and Perdue)
Acute Disease/Illness
- There is typically a sudden onset, with signs and symptoms related to the disease process itself.

- Ends in a short time (< 3mo), either with recovery and resumption of prior activities or with death.
Chronic Illness
- Continues indefinitely
- Often becomes the person's identity
- Takes many forms and there is no single onset pattern
- Can appear suddenly or through an insidious process, have episodic flare-ups or exacerbations, or remain in remission with an absence of sxs for long periods.
- Society labels/judges
Pretrajectory Illness phase
Before the illness course begins, the preventive phase, no signs or sxs present.
Trajectory Illness phase
Signs and sxs are present, includes diagnostic period.
Crisis Illness Phase
Life-threatening situation
Comeback Illness phase
Gradual return to an acceptable way of life within limits imposed by disability or illness.
Acute Illness Phase
Active illness or complications that require hospitalization for management.
Stable Illness phase
Illness course/symptoms controlled by regiment.
Unstable Illness Phase
Illness course/symptoms not controlled by regimen but not requiring hospitalization.
Downward Illness Phase
Progressive deterioration in physical/mental status characterized by increasing disability/symptoms.
Dying Illness Phase
Immediate weeks, days, hours preceding death.
General Systems Theory
Suprasystem
A major component of a system. It is made up of two or more interacting and interdependent components.
General Systems Theory
Subsystem
The entity that is composed of a number of component systems organized in interacting relationships in order to serve their embedding suprasystem.
General Systems Theory
Open System
A state and characteristics of the state in which a system continusously interacts with its environment.
General Systems Theory
Closed System
A state of being isolated from the environment. No system can be completely closed; there are only varying degrees of closure.
General Systems Theory
Entropy
A measure of energy that is expended in a physical system but does no useful work, and tends to decrease the organizational order of the system.
General Systems Theory
Negentropy
Is the utilization of energy. As a negentropy increases, the system's structural and functional integrity also increases, making the system stronger.
General Systems Theory
Equioifinality
The sameness of the end that may be reached from varying previous states or by varying routes.
Orem's Theory
Self Care; people have to be able to take care of universal requirements (air/water/food). Allow people to do for themselves what they can.
Roy's Theory
The promotion of adaptation in the four modes of physiological, self-concept, role function, and interdependence; thereby contributing to the person's health, quality of life, and dying with dignity.
Kings Theory
Emphasizes the importance of nurses and environmental factors. Objects, persons and events influence humans behaviors and social interactions. Focusing on these three systems helps to achieve goal attainment.
Chronic Sorrow
- Ongoing process for people or family members affected with chronic illness.
- Recurence of parental feelings when they are confronted or realize their child has a chronic illness.
- Sometimes predictable and sometimes not.
- Let the parents know they are not abnormal for having these feelings.
Children with Special Health Care Needs
Those who have or are at increased risk for a chronic physical, developmental, behavioral, or emotional condition requiring health and related services of a type or amount beyong what are required by healthy children.
Family-Centered Care
A philosophy that considers the family as the constant in the child's life. Is especially evident in the care of children with special needs. Parents become experts in caring for their special needs child.
Normalization
Behaviors and intentions of the disabled to integrate into society by living life as persons without a disability would.
Shock and Denial Phase
A defense mechanism is a necessary cushion to prevent disintegration and is a normal response of griving process. Can last from days to months to years. Denial allows the child to maintain hope in the face of overwhelming odds and to function adaptively and productively.
Adjustment Phase
Gradually follows shock and is usually characterized by an open admission that the condition exists. Usually accompanied by guilt and self-accusation. Also bitterness, anger and overprotection.
Reintegration and acknowledgement Phase
The adjustment process culminates in the development of realistic expectations for the child and reintegration of family life with the illness or disability in a manageable perspective. Total resolution is not possible until the child dies or leaves home as an independent adult.
What are the five patterns of coping that children will utilize?
1. Develops competence and optimism.
2. Feels different and withdrawls.
3. Is irritable, moddy, and acts out.
4. Complies with treatment.
5. Seeks support.