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143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A biotic community and its abiotic environment is referred to as a _________
Ecosystem
The term "ecology" is defined as the study of the ___________
Relationships between organisms and their environemnt
The term for following bodies of water is ________
Lotic
The biosphere is ____________
the thin layer surrounding the
Earth that supports all life
An organism that lives in a deep marine environment may exhibit the following physical characterists, except:
colorful skin pigmentation
The region of the vertical depth profile where water temperature declines most rapidly is the ________
Thermocline
Which of the following is considered a biotic component of the ecosystem?
Microbes
Habitability
is the ability of the physical environmet to support life
Which of the following bodies of water best represents a lotic ecosystems?
Spring
In lakes and ponds, decomposition occurs primarily in the _________
benthic zone
In ponds and lakes, the zone beneath the depth of effective light pentration but above the bottom is reffered to as the ________
profundal zone
Which of the following is the correct ecological hierarchy (from smallest unit to largest unit) of a daisy?
individual organism, population, community, landscape
A classification of plant formations and associated animal life into biotic units based on the predominant plant types, with at least eight major terrstrial types, is reffered to as a _______
biome
Which of the following is an incorrect match?
subpolar low: right-deflected, southward-flowing streams of air
The vegetation or tundra is dominated by _________
short plants such as sedges, heaths, and willow
True of False

Topographic features, such as mountains and valley, influences the climate of a region
True
True or False

In temperate deciduous forests the greatest concentration and diversity of life occurs in the canopy
False
True of False

The dry forests of tropical regions are reffered to as tropical savannas
False
True of False

Wetlands subjected to a long hydroperiod support more submerged and deep-water emergents than wetlands with a shorter hydroperiod
True
True or False

The complicated circulaton of air in Earth's atmosphere is due to both Earth's rotation and irregular land masses on Earth's surface
True
True or False

Tundra occurs only at high latitudes in polar regions
False
True or False

Ecology only examines the impact of natual processes and ignores the influence of human activity on the environment
False
True or False

The independent evolution of a similar characteristic in two different species not derived from a recent, common ancestor is reffered to as convergent evolution
True
Ture or False

Biogeography is the study of the distribution and abundace or orgaisms
False
True or False

In the tropical latitudes, the length of the dry season increases with distance from the equator
True
True or False

The largest and most continuous region of tropical rain forest in the world is in South America
True
True or False

Rainfall in the Southern Hemisphere is greater than rainfall in the Northern Hemisphere because the oceans cover a greater portion of the Southern Hemisphere
True
True or False

Ecology is the same as environmentalism
False
True or False

A population refers to all the individuls of the same species that occupy a given area
True
Wetlands domiated by emergent herbaceous vegetaion are called swamps
Fale
The ________ effect can rise temperatures from 6 degrees to 8 above those in the surrounding countryside
urban heat
The highest level of organization of ecological systems is the _______
Biosphere
All populations of different species living and interacting within an ecosystem are reffered to as a ________
community
Leave that live for more than a year are classified as ________
evergreen
The duration, frequency, depth, and season of flooding of a freshwater period are collectively reffered to as the ________
hydroperiod
The _______ are formed by the air that reaches Earth's poles, slowly sinks to the surface, and flows southward is deflected by the Coriolis effect
Polar easterlies
At the ______ level, communites and ecosystems are linked through precesses such as dispersal of organisms
landscape
The ________ forms the basic unit in ecology
individual
Radiation at higher latitudes is spread out over a large area because of the angle of the incidence and the ________
distance
________ is the scientific study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
ecology
The deflection of air masses to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere is called the ________
coriolis effect
A _______ climate is characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters
Meditteranean
________ forests typically grow in the intertidal zone of tropical coasts where wave action is absent, sediments accumulate, and the mude are anoxic
Mangroves
A ________ is a classification of plant formations and associated animal life into biotic untis based on the predominant plant types, wtih at least eight major terrestrial types
Biome
An allelethat completely masks the effects of another allele is considered _______
Dominant
If birds with larger beaks are favored by the environment, it is likely that ________ selection will occur
directional
A bimodal distribution of a trait in a population is the result of _______
Disruptive selection
A change in allele frequeny due to random chance is known as ______
Genetic drift
Reversible phenotypic changes of an individual organism in response to changing envionmental conditions are reffered to as _______
Acclimation
Which of the followingis considered a plant adaptation to low-nutrient environments?
Increased leaf longevity
Pneumatophores are typical of plants (particularly trees)
Exposed to fluctuating water levels
The true measure of an organism's reproductive success is
Its fitness
The mating system which males and females mate with one or many of the opposite sex and form no pair bond is known as
Promiscuity
Direct, aggressive competition among individuals for the opportunity mate with the opposite sex is characteristic of ________
Intrsexual selection
As an individual _______ its reproductive effort, it _______ its survivorship
Increases; decreases
The more seeds that a plant produces in a single reproductive episode, the ______ of each seed
Smaller the size
The reproductive strategy in which relatively few young are produced at repeated intervals during an individual's life cycle is referred to as ________
Iteroparity
Altricial young are relatively
helpless at birth and require a relatively long time for inubation/gestation
Asynchronous hatching
favors the survival of the early hatched young
A species that displays an iteroparous life strategy is also most likely to be which of the following?
K-selected
What is not a characteristic of an adaptation?
None of the above
Which of the following is an example of a morphological adaptation:
webbed feet on a duck
Which of the following is NOT a typical caracteristic of a drought evader:
deep roots to retrieve water
Growing thicker fur in the winter is an example of:
Acclimation
Which of the following terms is a classification of a plant adapted to dry areas
Xerophyte
True or False

Heritability is not an essential feature of natura selection
False
True or False

Submerged aquatic plants typially have stomata
False
True or False

An individual's fitness is defined by the number of offspring it produces
False
True or False

Female choice is most apparent in situations in which males congregate at a lek
True
True or False

Species that are K-strategists tend to develop more rapidly than those that are r-strategists
False
True or False

Evolution is defined as a change in phenotypic frequencies over time in a population
True
True or False

Disruprive selection favors individuals possessing traits near the mean value of a population
False
In animals, a cycle of physiological activity that occurs within a 24 hour period is called a __________
circadian rhythm
_________ are plants that live in water or in soils which are saturated with water
hydrophytes
A ________ is a measurable, gradual change over a geographic region in the average value of a trait
cline
A ________ is a populaion that has adapted to its unique local environmental conditions
ecotype
The process by which one species gives to multiple species that exploit different features of the environment is called _________
adaptive radiation
The ability of a genotype to give rise to a variety of phenotypic expressions under different environmental conditions is called ________
phenotypic plasticity
An organism's _________ is its lifetime pattern of growth, development, and reproduction
Life history
________ selection favors individuals possessing traits near the mean value of the population
Stabilizing
Which of the following is accurate regarding hosts and parasites:
Hosts adapt to avoid or minimize the effects of parasites, while parasites adapt to become less virulent to allow for cotinued persistance upon a host
Ants living on acacia trees is an example of ________
Mutualism
Which of the following is NOT an example of mutualism:
Hermit crabs and gastropod shells
Drone flies exhibit what type of defensive adaptation:
Batesian Mimicry
Which of the following is an adaptation to reduce parasitic invasions
All of the above
If a territorial animal secures access to a particular resource and keeps out other idividuals, this is called:
Interference competition
The outcome of competition can be influenced by which of these factors?
All of the above
Co-evolution can occur in which of the following types of species interactions:
All of the above
Which of the following is more true regarding predator-prey dynamics?
Both predators and prey can control the abundance of the
What impact(s) can parasites have upon host organims?
All of the above
A population that is decreasing in size has an intrinsic rate of population growth (r) that is ______
<0
Colonizing populations generally exhibit ______ populaiton growth while they established in a new environment
Exponential
Which of the following equations reflects the exponential model of population growth?
dN/dt=rN
In a life table, the value lx represents the
The probablility at birth of surviving to any given age
A _______ survivorship curve is typical of humans and other mammals, in which survival rate is high throughout the lifespan followed by heavy mortality at the end.
type I
A group of species in a community that all exploit the same common resources is called a
guild
The movement of individuals in space is called
Dispersal
Which of the following is not a feature of a population?
number of species
The most common spatial distribution of individuals within a populaiton is
clumped
Which of the following is the correct heirarchy of the population concept?
Locan population<metapopulation<subspecies<species
Competition in which the occupation of space by one individual prevents establishment in that space by another individual is reffered to as __________ competition
Preemption
Which of the following is considered a predator?
Omnivore
Which of the following is functionally a true predator?
Planktivore
According to the Lotka-Volterra equations, which of the following is not an expected outcome of competitive interactions between two species?
The population sizes of both species incease to infinity
The portion of potential resources and conditions that an organism actually exploits as a result of interactions with other species is its _________
Realized niche
When two or more organisms use a portion of the same resources simultaneously, it is referres to as
Nich overlap
Species diversity is known to change during succssion. Diversity tends to peak when?
At intermediate levels of disturbance and in mid-successional stages
The net outcome of predator-prey interactions is that
Predator and prey populations oscillate, with each predictably increasing and decreasin in response to the other
Which of the following statements in true regarding keystone species:
Prarie dogs are keystone species because their activities provide habitat for many other species and promote greater plant diversity
If 2 species of birds that live on a mountain restrict their ranges so that there is no overlap in their ranges (one at higher altitudes, one at lower),then this is an example of ________. If one species disappeared and the other re-expanded its range, this would be an example of ________
Niche differentiation, competitive release
In the same hypothetical situation, if the 2 species remained separate over long periods of time and genetic change occurred that led to phenotypic differences, this is called:
Character displacement
The view that each species in a community has adaptations that enable them to live alongside others in the community under a particular set of physical and biological conditions,but they do not share a common evolutionary history, is called the:
Individualistic Concept of Communities
In ecological succession, pioneer species are most likely to be ________ while late-successional species ae most likely to be ________
r-selected, K-selected
Indirect interactions occur when
One species does not interact with a second species but influenes a third species, which interacts directly with the second
Food webs can be arranged into _______ levels base on whether organisms obtain their nutrition from phoyosynthesis, from eating plants, or from eating animals
Trophic
When populations at a given trophic level are controlled by populations in the trophic level above them, they are said to be under
top-down control
The ________ mode proposes that later successional species are neither inhibited nor aided by species or earlier stages, and they establish themselves independently of species that precede or follow them
Tolerance
True or False

Transmission is where endoparasites escape during larval stage of development to make contact with the next host
True
True or False

Microparasites are relatively large and include flatworms, roundwords, flukes, etc...
False
True or False

Commensalism is an interaction where both species benefit from the association
False
True or False

Interspecific competition is an interaction between numbrs of the same species
False
True or False

Populaton size is influenced only by birth, death, immigration, and emigration
True
_________ is a temporal change in community composition and structure
Succession
The sequence of communities from the pioneer community to the climax community is called a _________
sere
Succession that occurs on a site that was previously occupied by another community is called ________ succession
secondary
_________ environmenal change is change that is a direct results of the organisms within the community
autogenic
The maximum sustainable population size for the prevailing environment is called the _________
carrying capasity
_________ involves the development of novel adaptations in predator and prey populations in responce to advances that make each more successful, either at obtaining prey or evading a predator
Coevolution
The factors that influence a populaiton in proportion to its size are called ________ factors
density dependent
_________ occurs when individuals use a common resource that is in short supply relative to the number seeking it
Competition
_________ population maintains positive growh rate, producing a surplus of individuals who immigrate elsewhere
Source
Competition among individuals of the same species is referred to as _________ competition
Intraspecific
When competing individuals deplete a shared resources without direct interaction, it is called __________ competition
exploitation
_________ growth is the inverse relationship between population density and individual growth
density dependent
A _________ consists of a group of local,interacting subpopulations that are linked by dispersal
metapopulation
At the _______ scale, population dynaimcs are governed by the interaction of local popultions
regional
Metapopulation persistence is a dynamic balance between the _________ and (re)colonization of empty habitat patches
extinction
A ______ populaiton cannot support a positive population growth and is only able to persist when idividuals immigrate from elsewhere
sink
At the _______, or within-patch scale, individuals move and interact with each other in the course of their routine feeding and breeding activities
local
_________ occurs when a species expands its niche in response to the removal of a competitor
competitive release
_________ is a defense mechanism in which a similar color pattern is shared by many unpalatable or venemous species
Melerian mimicry
___________ is the intimate and protracted association betweeen two or more organisms of different species
symbiosis
________ refers to the proportion of individuals in differentage classes
age structure