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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Level of Organization
of an
Organism
1. Chemical
2. Cell
3. Tissue
4. Organ
5. Organ System
6. Organism
Function of a Cell
1. obtain nutrient & oxygen
2. metabolism
3. synthesis
4. exchange of materials
5. intracellular transport
6. reproduction
4 Primary Types of Tissue
& their specialization
1. Muscle - contraction
2. Nervous - transmission of signal
3. Epithelial - exchange of materials
4. Connective - structural support
Types of Muscle Tissue
1. cardiac muscle
2. skeletal muscle
3. smooth muscle
Types of Nervous Tissue
1. central - brain & spinal cord
2. peripheral - everything else
Types of Epithelial Tissue
1. epithelial sheets - form boundaries
2. glands - secretion of synthesized materials
a. exocrine
b. endocrine
Types of Connective Tissue
1. Tendons - connect muscle to bone
2. Bones - produce blood
3. Blood
Definition of an Organ
def. two or more primary tissues organized to perform a function
Name some Organ Systems
1. Circulatory System
2. Digestive System
3. Respiratory System
4. Urinary System
5. Skeletal System
6. Muscular System
7. Integumentary System
8. Immune System
9. Reproductive System
Define Homeostasis
def. the dynamic maintenance of a stable internal (extracellular) environment within the organism
Factors that must maintain homeostasis
1. concentration of nutrients
2. concentration of O2 & CO2
3. concentration of waste product
4. pH
5. temperature
6. concentration of water & electrolytes
7. volume & presure
9. defense against foreign invaders
Name the control systems for homeostasis
1. intrinsic - local control built into an organ
2. extrinsic - external control system outside of an organ permitting coordinated regulation of several organs
What is negative feedback?
def. change in a controlled variable triggers a response that opposes the change
-ex: think thermostat temp control
Define Positive Feedback.
def. reinforces the change in a controlled variable; occur relatively rarely

ex. childbirth - once started, it does not stop
Define Feedforward control
def. response occurring in anticipation of a change in a control variable
Level of Organization
of a Cell
1. Plasma Membrane
2. Nucleus
3. Cytoplasm
a. Organelles
i/ER
ii/Golgi
iii/lysosomes
iv/peroxixomes
v/mitochondria
vi/vaults
b. Cytosol
c. Cytoskeleton
i/microtubules
ii/microfilaments
iii/intermediate
filaments
iv/microtrabecular
lattice
Scaling:

Size of a Cell?

Thickness of Cell Membrane?

Size of individual Protein
10-20 micrometers

~10 nanometers

1-3 nanmeters
Define plasma membrane.
def. thin membrane enclosing each cell
- composed of phospholipid bilayer
- separate intracellular and extracellular paces
- serves as barrier to diffusion
- contains protein and carbohydrate that reside w/in the bilayer
Define nucleus.
def. membrane bound organelle containing the genetic material
a. genes are composed of
i/DNA
ii/RNA
-mRNA
-rRNA
-tRNA
Define cytoplasm
def. portion of the cell's interior not occupied by the nucleus
Define Organelles and
Where they are found.
def. membrane-enclose structures that carry out specific functions

They are found in the cytoplasm.
Name 6 types of organelles commonly found in all cells.
1. ER - 2 types
a. rough ER
b. smooth ER
2. Golgi Complex
3. lysosomes
4. peroxisomes
5. mitochondria
6. vaults
Structure and Function
of the
ER
1. ER - continuous fluid filled network of membranous tubules
a. rough ER:
i/ ER membrane
covered with
ribosomes
ii/ synthesize and
release proteins
into the ER
proteins, where
it can be
secreted or
transported to
sites w/in
the cell
b. smooth ER:
i/ ER membrane lacks
ribsomes
ii/ serves to package
and transport
molecules
synthesized in
the RER to the
Golgi complex
for further
processing
Structure and Function
of a
Ribosome
constructed in the nucleus & programmed to carry out the synthesis of a single type of protein
- can be free floating
Structure and Function
of the
Golgi Complex
- sets of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs stacked in layers
- specialized for processing raw materials into finished products, and directing the product to their destinations including secretion
Structure and Function
of a
Lysosome
- membrane-enclosed sacs derived from the Golgi complex containing hydrolytic nz to digest & remove unwanted material
Define endocytosis.
def. the process by which extracellular material is brought into the cell
-2 types:
i/pinocytosis - invagination of the PM to form a pouch and internlize extracellular fluid (cell drinking)
ii/phgocytosis - invagination of the PM to form a large vesicle and internlize large particles such as bacteria or tissue debris

*storage disease: no breakdown of the endocytotic materials
Define exocytosis.
def. membrane enclosed vesicles containing finished products fuse with the PM thereby secreting the contents
Structure and Function
of a
Peroxisome
- membrane-enclosed sacs containing oxidative nz
- acts to remove hydrogen from toxic molecules to make H2O2; H2O2 is then degraded by catalase contained within the peroxisome
- acts to detoxify cell
Structure and Function
of a
Mitochondria
- oval double membrane-enclosed organelle containing nzs responsible for aerobic metabolism and the production of cellular energy in the form of ATP
Define glycolysis.
- sequence of nz-atic rxn
carried out by the cytosol
- oxidation of sugar in which
glc is converted into 2
pyruvate
- net yield of 2 ATP
Define Citric Acid Cycle.
- sequence of nz-atic rxn carried out in mitochondrial matrix
- energy stored in acetyl-CoA forms 1ATP, 2CO2, 3NADH, 1 FADH2
- 2 acetyl-CoA from pyruvate metabolism
Function of NADH
- nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-H
- derivative of vitamin B (niacin)
- acts as energy source by donating electrons
Function of FADH2
- flavine adenine nucleotide
- derivative of vitamin B (riboflavin)
- acts as an energy source by donating electrons
catalase
def. an antioxidant nz that decomposes H2O2 into H2O and O2
Net Equation
of
Electron Transport Chain
- occur in mito inner membrane cristae
- Rxn: 8NADH -> 24 ATP +4H2O
2FADH2-> 8 ATP +2H2O
- Net: 1Glc -> 36 ATP +6H2O
+6CO2
- produces 32 moles of ATP
Define vaults.
- octagonally shaped
proteinaceous organelles which
may function to transport
molecules, such as mRNA, to
sites within the cytoplasm
Location and Function of Cytosol
def. semiliquid portion of the cytoplasm
- 3 functions takes place in
cytosol:
1. enzymatic regulation
of intermediate
metabolism
2. ribosomal protein
synthesis
3. storage of fat and
glycogen
Define cytoskeleton
& state their components.
def. complex intracellular protein network that provides structural support and the capability for transport of material and cellular movement.
- Composed of 4 major components.
1. microtubules
2. microfilaments
3. intermediate filaments
4. microtrabecular
lattice
Define microtubules.
- long, hollow, unbranched proteinaceous tubes
- composed primarily of tubulin
- responsible for maintaining cell shape & controlling cellular movement (i.e. vesicular transport, movement of cilia and flagella) & distribution of c'some during cell division
Define microfilaments.
- filaments compose of two string of actin molecule
- fnc in cellular contraction and provide mechanical support of cellular extensions such as villi
Define intermediate filaments.
- irregular thread-like protein molecules
- provide structural support for cellular components by forming lattice that suspends other components of the cytoskeleton & organelles
- connected to the inner layer of the PM
- act as the cell's skeleton by providing shape, rigidity, and structural support
Define cell.
- basic "building block" for the complex tissue and organs that make up the body
Define Tissue
def. aggregate of cells and extracellular material; has 4 main types
Define Organ System.
def. collection of organs that perform related function essential to survival
Components of a Negative-Feedback Control System
a. set point - the desired
value of the variable
1. deviation in controlled var
(detected by)
b. sensor - mechanism to
detect the controlled
variable
(informs)
c. integrator - compares
the senor's input with
the set point
(sends instructions to)
d. effector - adjusts the
value of the controlled
variable
(brings about)
e. compensatory response
(results in)
f. controlled variable
restored to normal
(leads to)
g. negative feedback to
shut off the system
responsible for the
response
Function of membrane proteins
1. can selectively tranport molecules and ions
2. can act as receptors to signal responses by the cell
3. can form adhesions and junctions w/other cells