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12 Cards in this Set

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4 Types of Cell Signaling
Direct contact (e.g. gap junctions)

Paracrine signaling to adjacent cells

Endocrine signaling  long-range signaling using
circulatory and lymphatic systems

Synaptic signaling  neurotransmitters
G-proteins utilize what
G-proteins utilize
GTP
Instead of ATP
Enzymic Receptor
Single-pass transmembrane proteins
Contains a catalytic domain
Appropriate signal molecules bind, change conformation, and activate catalytic domain
The Expression of Cell Identity
Cell-Cell Interactions using Identity Markers
Glycolipids (e.g. those on red blood cells that dictate type A, B, and O blood types)
MHC Proteins: major histocompatibility complex proteins that help the immune system identify self vs. non-self.
G-proteins utilize what
G-proteins utilize
GTP
Instead of ATP
3 things about Ion Channels
Multipass transmembrane proteins
Pore forms in the center of the protein
The pore is opened or closed via chemical signals
Intracellular Adhesion
Cell Junctions
Tight junctions (aka occluding junctions): small molecules cannot pass between cells. Made from the plasma membrane
MHC Proteins and
Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis is an auto-immune disorder. This means that the patient’s body has trouble distinguishing self from non-self tissue and cells.
G-protein Linked Receptor
Seven-pass transmembrane protein
2nd messenger (acts indirectly on enzymes or ion channels)
Activation: Binding GTP
Cell Junctions
Communicating Junctions
Physical connections that allow chemical or electrical signals to pass from one cell to another
Animals: Gap Junctions
Plants: Plasmodesmata
Demyelination in
Multiple Sclerosis
The lack of appropriate cell identifiers in multiple sclerosis causes an autoimmune response. This attack on the body leads to demyelination (see orange regions).
Intracellular Adhesion
Anchoring Junctions
Anchoring Junctions
The cytoskeletons in adjacent cells join
These junctions are most common in tissues that are subject to mechanical stress (e.g. muscle)
Desmosomes
Hemidesmosomes
Adherens junctions