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64 Cards in this Set

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Hieronymus Bosch, Ship of Fools, oil on panel, 1495
textual sources. references to foolish monks and nuns, vanity and sensousness, peasantry?, shows that the artist was well versed in literature.
Albrecht Durer, The Serenading Fool, woodcut, 1494
compare with ship of fools?
Hieronymus Bosch, Seven Deadly Sins, tabletop, 1480-85.
"4 last things" sort of a last judgement scene and 7 deadly sins-

Luxuria (lust) nude lovers harassed by demons.
Superbia (pride) lover, mirror, toad.
Invidia (envy)
Gula (gluttony)
Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights (exterior), 1505-1510, oil on panel.
grisaille creation scene. 3rd day of creation? corrosive elements inside a beaker? alchemy? St. Augustine's apocalypse?
Hieronymus Bosch, Garden of Earthly Delights, 1505-1510, oil on panel.
Represents a lexicon of Bosch's personal symbolic language and a summa of his lore. Polemic against weakness of human kind and its inevitable fate in hell. Showpiece of intellectual discussion, not expressly devotional or didactic.
Left wing- union of adam and eve. pre-lapsarian. "over-ripe" eden.
Center- garden of earthly delights, apocolyptic message. strawberries.. nudes and sexual trysts.
Right- "Inferno" virility and youth give over to sterility and decay. Sodom. Satan the Devourer. Tree-man of Death.
Hieronymus Bosch, The Human Tree, print, 1510.
Hieronymus Bosch, The Field Has Eyes, the Forest Has Ears, pen and ink, 1505-1516.
Hieronymus Bosch, The Haywain Triptych, oil on panel, 1500-1505.
Philip II, personal interpretations of traditional last judgement programs. Landloper = "everyman." Pilgrimage, blessed return to paradise, return to garden of eden. Hell on right, "all the world's a haystack and each man plucks from it what he can." Christ's role as an intercessor futile?
Hieronymus Bosch, Christ Crowned with Thorns, tondo, oil on panel, 1511.
Hieronymus Bosch, Christ Carrying the Cross, oil on panel, 1515-16.
Dramatic close-up, snarling, grimacing, ugly exterior > ugly interior, common trope. Veronica and Sudarium.
Albrecht Altdorfer, The Dead Pyramus, pen on blue paper, 1510.
Conrad Celtis: study of german landscape. Tachitus: Roman writer about german landscape "Germania" 1st century. Urwald: primordial forest, Hersinnian Forest. Forest as a stage for romantic and mystical thought.

In tradition of Carta Azzurra.. loose calligraphic lines. Mythical story of Pyramus and Thisby. Repressed love carried out in forests. Altorfer subverts the narrative for formal technique.
Albrecht Altdorfer, St. George and Dragon, oil on parchment on panel, 1510.
Forest overshadows the figure. St. George is a "little toy." Forest is antithesis of Christian society- untamed, uncivilized. Knight dwarfed by the forest, focus on foliage, not on narrative. Pantheism fosters mysticism and romanticism in religion.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Satyr Family, panel, 1507.
German folkloric creatures. Idyllic life away from civilization. Landscape and narrative equal in composition. Urwald. Wild man/woman.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Danube Landscape, oil on parchment on panel, 1520-25.
Creating landscape without any trace of human life. "stimmung" feeling- traces of man. Study? Individual works of art. Danube school promoting landscape as able to stand alone w/o any other subject. Pantheism. Compare to studies of Durers. Landscape emerging as independent genre. Urwald.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Large Fir, etching with watercolor, 1521-2.
Danube school- local landscapes. Geography and topography. Transitional themes in forest. Craggy mountains and trees. Etching- intaglio process.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Agony in the Garden, from the St. Florian Altar, oil on panel, 1518.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Battle of Alexander at Issus, panel, 1528-29.
Allegory to modern day battle. Very atmospheric, clouds swirling. seems to contemplate more than just the ancient story- a battle of the cosmos not just of man.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Schöne Maria of Regensberg, color woodcut from six blocks, 1510-20.
6 color block print. Very labor intensive process. Devotional image- the type attached to processes of indulgences, served cultic function.
Albrecht Altdorfer, Regensburg Synagogue, etching, 1519.
Observed by Altdorfer while the Jews were forced to clear out their synagogue and leave Regensburg. Shows capacity of print to record and distribute news.
Hans Baldung-Grien, Three Stages of Womanhood and Death, oil on panel, 1509-10.
Contemplation of Vanitas. Seductive Venus/Eve.
Hans Baldung Grien, Fall of Man, woodcut, 1514.
Referencing same ideas of women and death. Vanitas, memento mori, final moments of peace in eden. Compare to Durers version.
Hans Baldung-Grien, Death and the Maiden, oil on panel, 1517.
Vanitas. Memento Mori.
Hans Baldung-Grien, Witches’ Sabbath, chiaroscuro woodcut, 1510
Witchcraft and Alchemy. Tonal/Chairoscuro woodcut. "Black mass" Shakespeare's Macbeth. Urwald.
Hans Baldung-Grien, Bewitched Stable Groom, woodcut, 1544.
Strange composition. Stranger iconography. Self portrait?
Hans Holbein the Younger, Christ in the Tomb, panel, 1521
Dostoyevsky "A picture like this could rob men of their faith." Not a contemplation of Christ's death, but of our own. Portrait of Christ's mortality. Predella/Sarg: German's riff on the idea of the sarg as a coffin. Scientific view of a corpse, not overly idealized. Speaks to the "chutzpah" of the artists in this period. "Relentless view of the agony of death." Non-partisan, objectivity.
Hans Holbein the Younger, Portrait of Erasmus, panel, 1523-4.
Portraiture was not a problematic genre in terms of the Reformation debate. Holbein became a sort of go to person for objective portraiture. Portraiture as "currency," sending portraits as gifts to develop "social network". Not an eternal or idealized view of the person but an accurate representation of what they actually looked like at that period in time. Concerned with the idea of "self fashioning." This portrait went to Boniface Hammerbach, lawyer in Basel, philanthropist and humanist,he became the executor of Hamlet's estate. Erasmus's fame comes from print but he is always depicted writing, Erasmus is the "brain" but his fame comes from his writing. *Harbison reading*
Quentin Metsys, Erasmus Portrait Medal, 1519.
Portrait medals were sort of "calling cards," based on the idea of coinage but bigger. New medium useful in gift economy. Characteristic profile, scholarly robes. "ER - ROT" : Erasmus of Rotterdam. "I concieve to no one," motto of Terminus. "Contemplate the end of a long life."
Hans Holbein the Younger, Philip Melanchton, portrait roundel, oil on panel, 1529.
Melanchton was another reformer and follower of Martin Luthers Portraiture genres reinforce themselves. Holbein as an accurate renderer of faces. Art starts to make statements about the artist. Self fashioning so important to these scholar/literati types.
Hans Holbein the Younder, Erasmus (The Longford Portrait), oil on panel, 1524.
Sent to the Archbishop of Canterbury: William Warham. Dedicated "hurculean labors": translated letters of St. Jerome to him. Erasmus never fully embraces Protestantism. Holbein has to pledge to protestants to keep working in Basel- but still has Catholic clients. Eventually he goes to England, works in court of King Henry VIII.
Hans Holbein the Younger, Sir Thomas More, oil on panel, 1527.
Thomas More was King Henry VIII's right hand man at the time that this was made. He was sent to the tower 6 years later.. Conventions of portraits: 3/4 to full profile, attributes of their occupation. Aristocratic/occupational portraits emphasize social status.
Hans Holbein the Younger, Henry VIII, oil on panel, 1540.
Han Holbein the Younger, The French Ambassadors, oil on panel, 1533.
Ambassador to english court and French bishop: Jean de Demptville and George Selve. Objects on the table serve to point to learned and scientific pursuits. Somewhat distracting? Polyhedron- sundial, attempts to show correct time in multiple places at once. "Emblematic" properties of people and objects. Strange anamorphic skull = memento mori. Demands analysis.
Hans Holbein the Younger, Erasmus Portrait Roundel, oil on panel, 1531.
Heinrich Vogtherr, Selling of Indulgences in a Church, woodcut broadsheet, (Augsburg: Ramminger, 1521) caption: “Without indulgences from Rome, you can still find salvation through the message of God’s holy word”
Direct critique of the selling of indulgences. This is the kind of propaganda circulating Renaissance ideals. Printing has chicken and egg relationship with reformation. Marting Luther calls it "God's highest act of grace." "Process by which the gospel moves forward." No support for practices of the Roman Catholic church in new testament- main issue. Theological disputation. ML was an augustinian monk but was excommunicated by the pope.
Lucas Cranach the Elder, Martin Luther as Junker Jörg, oil on panel, 1521.
Frederick the Wise- Saxony, protector of Martin Luther. While staying at his estate, translates the new testament from greek to german- 11 months. Disguised himself as "Junker Jorg"- east german/ prussian nobleman. Priestly and militant hero. Flattened colored background is characteristic of Cranach- court painter of Frederick the Wise.
Workshop of Lucas Cranach, frontispiece to pamphlet Papal Ass of Rome, woodcut broadsheets, (Wittenberg: Rhau-Grunenberg, 1523)
Luther/Cranach use these strange occurances to show that the papacy is veering in a strange direction... Papal ass of Rome- creature that surfaced in the Tibur river. Interpreted as a portent of the coming apocalypse. Direct character assassination of the papacy. Very feminine looking..
Workshop of Lucas Cranach, frontispiece to pamphlet The Monk Calf of Freyberg, woodcut broadsheets, (Wittenberg: Rhau-Grunenberg, 1523)
Compare to monstrous sow.. misbirths and prodigies as portents of the coming apocalypse. Calf born that supposedly looked like a monk? Very little hair, weird flap on back, bald spot on head "tonchure", tongue protruding, preaching gesture. Luther/Cranach use these strange occurrences to show that the papacy is veering in a strange direction.
Heinrich Vogtherr der Ältere, after Luther as a Monk by Lucas Cranach, woodcut broadsheet (Augsburg: Ramminger, 1520)
Same caption as Selling of Indulgences image, used to promote Luther.
Hans Baldung Grien, Martin Luther, woodcut, defaced impression, 1521
Portraits that were censored.. Catholics attacking back by destroying/defacing. Iconoclasm- way to attack these personas.
Unknown German artist, Luther Exposing Himself, trick woodcut with folding flaps, 1535.
Base humor.. parody of Martin Luther as a fool. Catholic attack on Protestants? Is this the best they can do?
Unknown German artist, Nun (Katherina von Bora?) Exposing Herself, trick woodcut with folding flaps, 1535
Base humor. Catholic attack on protestants? Maybe this is a depiction of Katherina Von Bora. ML criticized Catholic church for not allowing clergy to marry. Takes a wife.. Kat von B, former nun.
Lucas Cranach, Martin Luther and Katherina von Bora, roundel portrait, oil on panel, 1525.
Roundel portraits. Direction of image making changing. Fit together like a box. Private, personal images. ML doesn't condone iconoclasm..
Cranach the Elder & workshop, Allegory of the Law and the Gospels, oil on panel, 1529.
ML issues sermon in 1525 in attack of iconoclasm, asks for a more direct/didactic set of images, not destroying them completely. Soul persecuted by death and devil, on other side, following Christ. Salvation comes from Christ alone. Would have hung in Protestant church or in collections of followers. Woodcut reproduction made stressing these same ideals.
Cranach the Elder and Younger, Weimar Altarpiece, oil on panel, 1555.
Head of the region chooses faith. "Head of the region, his the religion." Saxony chooses protestantism. Lutheran triptych. Compare to Ghent altarpiece. Share iconographic elements, but the protestant version seems too leadfooted, very forward about didactic message, not as harmonious. Also compare to other Cranach altarpiece. Transubstantiation vs Consubstantiation. Central panel- fall of man, obviously treating the idea of "choice." Wings- Dukes of Saxony, family portrait.
Cranach the Elder, Judgment of Paris, oil on panel, 1530.
Theme from antiquity- safe in times of iconoclasm. Flatly portrayed "boneless chicken" goddesses. Mercury- god of war. Theme of choice. Though by humanists to be a flawed decision. Set in German Urwald. Plea to Saxon princes, destiny is in ones' own hands.
Georg Pencz, The Hunters caught by the Hares, hand colored woodcut, 1534
Caption: Everyone should bear his yoke at this time and overcome his misfortune with patience.
Protestant sympathies? Idea of world turned upside down. Propaganda- some disguises its message in allegory. Hare is chronicling this inverted world. Commentary on peasants war? Direction of propaganda undetectable. Compare to Kermis', purpose? partisan? Directed to both sides?
Jan Mostaert, West Indies Landscape, oil on panel, 1545.
Work that the artist made and kept (in collection of grandson..) "art historical moment" Zuni pueblo invasion? "Nudies" indigenous inhabitants of.. somewhere.. battling some form of europeans. Very formulaic conventions. Landscape is highly constructed, not objective at all. Recession into distance, atmospheric perspective, figures, rock formations etc, hazy recession into the background. Allegoricall: tranquil environment being threatened.
Patinir, Temptation of St. Anthony, oil on panel, 1520-24 (figures by Quentin Metsys).
Compare to previous tropes of St. Anthony as a hermit saint. Patinir credited as someone good at landscapes via Durer. Rock formations- "conventional" not a particular view of anything. fantastic, not realistic. Elevated view point. 3 color zones: brown foreground, green middle ground, blue background. Landscape organizes the activity.
Bruegel, Temptation of St. Anthony, pen & ink, 1556.
Very Bosch esque. Hermit saints lend themselves to nature. Demons extensions of nature as well. Organic forms- animated. Broad and fantastic landscapes.
Patinir, Rocky Landscape w/ St. Jerome, oil on panel, c. 1515-19.
St. Jerome usually in study. This focuses on moment with Lion. Atmospheric perspective and color zones. Building blocks. Religious subject a pretext, subverted by landscapes. "staffage" little figures doing anecdotal themes. little buildings details fillers. Blending the 3 zones convention much better.
Patinir, Rest on the Flight into Egypt, oil on panel, 1520-24.
Taking on biblical topics with landscapes motivations. Reference to late medieval tradition of continuous narrative, using a landscape to give us more scope of the story. Anecdotal aspects in background "staffage." Color helps to smooth out transitions, not as broken down into blocks.
Bruegel, The Flight into Egypt, oil on panel, 1563.
Studied with court painter of Charles V. Goes to italy in 1533. Has to go across the Alps, relate this to his experience of treacherous travel, sense of sublime, elevated view characters are not the main focus. Doesn't use Patinir's color scheme at all. Still uses levels though. Elements of the observed world. No indication of where the travelers are going. Doesn't reflect Italian renaissance ideals. Calvinism taking hold in Antwerp. Iconoclasm.
Bruegel, Census at Bethlehem, oil on panel, 1566.
Flemishscene of everyday life/biblical scene. Elevated viewpoint. Sense of season and weather. His color palate reinforces the feeling of winter. "Leaden sky." Very loose handling. Use of staffage.
Bruegel, Massacre of Innocents, oil on panel, 1566-7.
Snowy day. Leaden sky. Raised viewpoint. etc. Clumps of people, variety of classes. White backdrop very harsh. Biblical themes + events of the day = commentary on the religious oppression of the time.
Patinir, Baptism of Christ, oil on panel, 1515-19.
Telltale "Patinir" formula. Rocks, colors, recession, "hazy", etc. Common christian iconography. Continuous narrative-esque. *Compare to John the Baptist Preaching by Bruegel.
Bruegel, St. John the Baptist Preaching, oil on panel, 1566.
Difficult to figure out where protagonists are because composition is not arranged as so to highlight them. Nature frames the scene, inverted compositions. Subverts nature for setting- Patinir other way around. Contemporary Flemish dress and exotics. Turbans- gypsies etc. Variety of reactions. Works for catholic patrons? or trying to bury biblical aspects so deep into the composition to avoid iconoclasm. Panorama of types rather than one particular meaning "erasmian catholics."
Pieter Bruegel, Hunters in the Snow, oil on panel, 1565.
Panoramic landscape. Leaden sky. Similar to tres riche heures. Figures in painting are primary focus. People of peasant classes main focus of his seasons. Peasants- people who are not working against nature but are rather an extension of it. Sympathetic view of it. View of marginal classes- ethnography. Formal properties: zones, more refined. Ususe diagonals to draw the force of the action. "Peasant Bruegel"
Pieter Bruegel, Peasant Dance, oil on panel, 1566-68.
Uses a series of diagonals to establish composition. Still lens- life passing by. Bruegel cantapults peasants into a category of worthy subjects for art. Breugel explored this life first hand. Made sketches and studies. "Dynamism" angles of arms. Motion. "Naer het leven" from the life. Proverb. "Theatrum muni" life as a theater.
Pieter Bruegel, The Netherlandish Proverbs, oil on panel, 1559.
Also called: The Blue Cloak, or the Folly of the World. Encapsulates everything that Breugel has been building up to. Theater of life, observed, panorama. *Sullivan Reading* Bruegel collecting moralizing philosophy, proverbs, sayings. Erasmus: adages, "adagio", ancient sayings with folk meaning. Humanist culture and peasant culture: put together into productive dialogue. Central figure group is blue cloak meaning "hoodwinked", Things turned upside down. 120 some proverbs. Folly as the root of all evil. Learned urban audiences found pleasure in meditating on these phrases etc.
Pieter Bruegel, Big Fish eat Little Fish, pen and ink, 1556.
Commentary on circular natures of life and of folly. Huge fish feeding all smaller fishes, feeding on smaller fishes. Knife has the "orb of the world" marking, upside down.
Pieter Bruegel, Blind Leading the Blind, oil on canvas, 1568.
Parable of christ from matthew. "Blind leading the blind and all will fall into a ditch." Sympathetic looking characters. "Everyman" always tongue in cheek with Breugel.
Pieter Bruegel, Land of Cockaigne, oil on panel, 1566.
"There the walls are made of sausages and the roofs are covered with custards." Proverbial land of plenty. comment on sin an gluttony? Compare to Bosch's table top. Commentary on gluttony also. Fools paradise, vernacular proverb and classical latin. "Raining Sausages" "everyman" knights, peasants, clerk.
Pieter Bruegel, Fall of Icarus, panel transferred to canvas, 1555-6.
Theme from classical mythology set in contemporary times. Ovid describes all the men on earth witnessing icarus and deadelus "mistake these men as gods," Lesson on hubiris from the myth. Humanity ignoring the disaster. "No plow stops for the sake of a dead man.: German proverb, fate of everyman, life goes on.
Pieter Bruegel, Artist and Patron (the Painter and the Connoisseur), pen and ink drawing, 1565.
Self portrait of the artist. Not "creator" like Durer's portrait. Artists for hire- brush being motivated by the person who stands behind him. Breugel does not seems please about sight. He can see it, we cannot.