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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
articular cartilage, menisci, and IV discs act together to do what?
absorb shock and resist compression
ligaments, menisci, and IV discs act together to do what?
stabilize movement
articular cartilage and synovium act together to do what?
minimize friction
different collagens will have different strengths in terms of what?
tensile stregths
molecularly compression resistance is acomplished by what?
immobilized proteoglycans
what is the strucure of collagen?
triple helicle protein, many post translational modifications, and glycine every third residue and it is a polyproline helix
this collagen is the most abundant in the body and it is the main component of most fibrous CT, bone and skin.
type I
hyaline cartilage is primarily made of what type of cartilage?
type II
fibrocartilage is made of what types of cartilage?
type I and II
articular cartilage is mainly composed of what?
hyaline cartilage
ligement is composed of mostly what?
fibrous tissue, mainly type I collagen and some type III
meniscus is composoed of what?
fibrocartilage (mainly type I) and some type II collagen
what is the structure of proteoglycans?
GAGs attached to protein
what is the structure of a GAG?
repeating disaccharide polymers, usually sulfated
what proteoglycan is specefic to all types of fibrocartilage?
what are some physical properties of polyanionic GAGs?
bind water, create resistance to fluid flow and compression
what cartilage is thought of as suspended endochondral ossification?
articular cartilage
what are the zones of articular cartilage?
tangentil (thin fibers parallel to the surface), transitional (less fiber organization, more rounded fibers), deep zone (vertical fibers and columnar cells), and tidemark (calcified cartilage between deep zone and subchondral bone)
collagen also differs if it is close to achondrocyte. How?
the territorial matrix close to the chondrocytes is less organized while the interterritorial matrix has larger, more organized ollagen fibers.
where is the water content of cartilage highest?
in the deep zone
since cartilage is avascular and aneural, what does it reuire?
biomechanical loading, but excessive forces will lead to breakdown
what happens to cartilage as a person ages?
biomechanical function declines and cellular capacity for renewal of the matrix diminishes
synovial tissues are a layer of lining cells found where?
interior of joint capsule, tendon sheath, brusae, and surface of ligaments
what are two roles of synovial tissue?
provides metabolic support for avascular cartilage and lubricating synovial fluid
distinguish between type A and B synoviocytes.
A are mac like that remove debris while B are fibroblast like that secrete HA which contributes to high viscoity and filtration of plasma.
what condition is marked by benign nodular proliferation of synovium with inflammation?
pigmented villonodular synovitis
what condition is marked by nodules of hyaline cartilage within synovium, mechanical disruption of joint, pain, and swelling?
synovial chondromatosis
how does the elasticity of tendons compare to ligaments?
ligaments are more elastic than tendons at low loads
what is the vascularized loose CT surrounding collagen fibers within the ligament?
what is the vascularized loose CT on the surface of the ligament?
epiligament (proprioceptive nerve fibers are typically here)
the direct attachment of ligament to bone contains four zones which are?
ligament, calcified and uncalcified, fibrocartilage, and bone
describe indirect attachment of ligament to bone.
fusion of ligament with periosteum
what is an example of a ligament that will repair? one that will not?
tibial collatal lig will repair while ACL will not
what syndrome is a genetic modification of collagen genes that results in varying degrees of joint laxity?
ehlers danlos syndromes (many contortionists have this)
what syndrome is a genetic defect in fibrillin gene that leads to joint laxity, abnormal height, blindness, and aortic dilation and aneurysm?
marfan's syndrome
what does the shape of the menisci do iin terms of stress?
circumferential orientation converts axial load into tensile hoop stress.
compare injury and movement in lateral and medial meniscus.
the medial meniscus is less mobile and provides more stabilty, but it is more prone to injury
compare the anterior and posterior horns of the menisci
the anterior horns are more mobile, but tearing of the posterior horns is more likely
compare tears in vascular and avascular regions of the meniscus.
tears in the vascular region may heal, but they require surgical stabilaztion while avascular tears do not heal
what anchors the annulus fibrosis to the vertebral body?
sharpey's fibers
compare the content of the anulus fibrosus and the nucleus pulposus.
AF is circumferential collagen fibers, fibrocartilage and fibroblasts while NP is proteoglycan rich gel with chondrocytes.
what is the microanatomical structure of a disc herniation?
the posterior AF is thinner, thus it tears easily allowing the NP to protrude through which can put pressure on the spinal nerves.
describe degenerative disc disease.
it is similar to OA. The functional proteoglycan content of NP decreases leading to stiffening. AF becomes stiffer and cracks develop leading to less resiliance and lower viscoelasticity