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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Order of brain covers from outermost(skull...parencyma)? composition/main fauture of each layer/space?
Dura- dense collagenous tissue; bleeding outside = epidural hemtoma (middle meningeal artery from temporal bone fracture)
Sudural space- potential; only exists if subdural hematoma- veins nicked during trauma
Arachnoid- made of fibroblasts and meningiothelial cells -very thin layer
Sub arachnoid space- area where CSF travels/blood vessels
PIA- literally covering parenchyma
How can infections/tumor cell metasteses get into parenchyma of brain?
travel in blood in subarachnoid space and dive in at perivascular spaces
What are contained in Nissle bodies?
RER and polyribosomes
100 billion neurons in brain; how many in cerebellum and how many in cortex?
How many cell layers in cortex? What layers are output? what special cell type?
80% cerebellum, 20% Neocortex
6 layers; largest layer varies by region; layers 3/5 are efferent (Pyramidal Cells)
i.e Motor cortex- 5 largest due to output, occipital- 4 largest due to afferent nature
When do neurons become "red"? look like a flame?
Understand plaque vs. tangle distinctions!
with irreversible ischemic injury! normally, everything is purple!
Flame= neurofibrillary tangles associated with Alzheimer's disease
What disease process causes the formation of Lewy Bodies? Where? What protein found here? What look like?
Parkinson's. In substantia Nigra. alpha synuclein.
How do astrocytes respond during brain injury? what gets overexpressed and can be detected on stain? Purpose?
they hypertrophy and express GFAP. Purpose is to extend foot processes to blood vessels to protect BBB.
What do oligo's look like?
Halo around a nucleus.
How will you know if you are in white matter?
Look for abundance of OLIGOS... always around neurons.
What area of the hippocampus is most sensitive to ischemia, seizures, and early degeneration from Alzheimers?
CA1 region
What do ependymal cells do? Do they express GFAP? Why?
Line lateral ventricles, Sub arach space, and anywhere that touches CSF. YES since they are glially derived.
What are common sites of atheroma, leading to TIA's?
points of bifurcation
What does ACA supply?
What does MCA supply?
What does PCA supply?
1. medial aspects of both hemispheres and corpus callosum
2. lateral aspects of both hemispheres
3. inferior and medial aspects of temporal and occipital lobes
Why a pale infarct? red infarct? Where are emboli most likely going to occlude?
Thrombus- leads to ischemia and necrosis/edema
red = embolus that has broken down and blood reperfused necrotic area
Most likely going to occlude distal arteries off of the MCA due to direct path from Heart/int carotid..can by unilateral and minimal consequences
What is a watershed infarct? Why caused?
Lack of perfusion to areas that rely on MCA/PCA overlap...due to hypotensive crisis
When does brain death (lack of perfusion) occur?
When intracranial pressure > vascular BP...due to edema
Hypertensive damage? what does it due to microvasculature? result? areas most susceptible in brain 2?
degenerates micrvasculature at pts of athlersclerosis.. results in hemorrhage... Thalamus and basal ganglia
What is a sacular aneurysm? Where arise from in general and what is most common location? Anterio or posterior?
Arise from a ruptured large artery in circle of Willis... 90% occur in ANTERIOR portion of circle... generally seen in 30-50 y/o with HPT and minimal symptoms b4