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27 Cards in this Set

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What cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and how are the cells characterized?
T cell lymphocytes, characterized by a direct attack on diseased and cancerous cells.
What happens to T cells in the thymus?
They are processed to become T cells
When a macrophage leaves the bloodstream and enters the tissues, what do they become?
macrophages, containing presenting antigens.
Why did Nick black out after his bee sting?
Besides causing your airways to narrow histamine also causes them to leak fluid, and your blood pressure falls
What does an epi-pen do for an allergic response?
it raises your blood pressure and relaxes your airways
What was the condition that Nick suffered from?
anaphylaxis
How do T cells help B cells?
T cells release cytokines that stimulate both nonspecific and specific defenses
In order for a T cell to attack an antigen, what has to happen?
The antigen has to be displayed to them by an an antigen presenting cell, such as a macrophage.
What happens to the antigen inside of a macrophage or dentritic cell?
After phagocytizing a pathogen, antigen presenting cells travel to a lymph node or spleen, where T cells also congregate. In the meantime, it breaks down the pathogen apart in the lysosome. A piece of the pathogen is then displyayed in the groove of a major histocompatability complex protein on the cell's surface.
What is the groove where a piece of a pathogen is displayed once an antigen presenting cell has phagocytzed a pathogen?
The major histocompatability complex protein on the cell's surface
What is the ajor histocompatiabiltiy complex?
The piece of a pathogen is displayed on this. It's a protein on the cell's surface.
What are human MHC proteins called?
human leukocyte antigens or HLA's
Where are the human leukocyte antigens found?
on all of our body's cells.
No 2 sets of human leukocyte antigens are alike except for when?
In identical twins
Because they mark the cell as belonging to a particular individual, HLA antigens are called what?
self proteins
What is the importance of self proteins in plasma membranes?
When it was discovered that they contribute to the specificity of tissues and make it difficult to transplant tissue from one human to another.
Before a transplant is attempted, what must be carried out? What would the results indicate?
comparison studies of the more than 50 MHC antigens, the greater number of proteins that match, the more likely the transplant will be successful
What happens when an antigen-presenting cell links a foreign antigen to the self protein on its plasma membrane when the T cell sees it?
The T cell to be activated compares the antigen and self protein side by side, and recognize the foreign from self, and destroy the cells carrying foreign antigens while leaving the normal body cells unharmed
What does the T-cell compare side by side when it sees an antigen-presenting cell?
The self protein on its plasma membrane and the antigen
How are B cells different than T cells?
T cells are unable to recognize an antigen without help
Where is a piece of the bacteria a macropahge or antigen presenting cell displayed for a T cell?
in the major histocompatibility complex.
what do you call the antigens on the groove of a macrophage?
self proteins
Where does an APC break a pathogen apart?
In the lysosyme
On humans, what are all the names of the place where a antigen presenting cell displays the bacteria?
Human leukocyte antigens or self proteins
In animals, what is the name of the place where a antigen presenting cell displays bacteria it eats?
Major histocompatability complex
What stimulates antibody mediated immunity and humeral immunity or B cells?
cytokynes released by T cells
What happens when an antigen-presenting cell links a foreign antigen to the self protein on its plasma membrane?
The T cell to be activated can compare the antigen and self protein side by side. If the antigen is foreign, it will destroy it!