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36 Cards in this Set

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CAL (chronic airflow limitation)
May see this used in charts. Refers to asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, etc.
Asthma
intermittent, reversible, airway obstruction. Affects airway not alveoli.
Asthma can develop because of inflammation. Explain how this happens.
exposure to a trigger causes capillaries to dilate (inflammation process starts) & body tries to fix problem by dumping fluids into area. Increased fluids=increased mucus and causes bronchoconstriction narrowing the bronchi.
Asthma can also develop because of hyper-responsiveness. Explain how this happens.
Smooth muscles in the bronchial tree contract limiting air flow. This can occur when a person is exercising, exposed to cold air or stress.
What is an acute response?
usually after exposure to an inhaled irritant bronchoconstriction occurs within 10-20 min.
CAL (chronic airflow limitation)
May see this used in charts. Refers to asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, etc.
Asthma
intermittent, reversible, airway obstruction. Affects airway not alveoli.
Asthma can develop because of inflammation. Explain how this happens.
exposure to a trigger causes capillaries to dilate (inflammation process starts) & body tries to fix problem by dumping fluids into area. Increased fluids=increased mucus and causes bronchoconstriction narrowing the bronchi.
Asthma can also develop because of hyper-responsiveness. Explain how this happens.
Smooth muscles in the bronchial tree contract limiting air flow. This can occur when a person is exercising, exposed to cold air or stress.
What is an acute response?
usually after exposure to an inhaled irritant bronchoconstriction occurs within 10-20 min.
How do anticholinergics work in treating asthma?
These block the parasympathetic nervous system which increases the sctivity of the sympathetic NS and causes bronchodilation
How do methylxanthines work in treating asthma?
related to caffeine these cause direct relaxation of smooth muscle=bronchodilation. Usually used as last resort if nothing else is working or in ER.
How do anti-inflammatory meds work in treating asthma and what are the classifications?
reduce inflammatory process in airways. Classifications: leukotriene modifiers, cortiocosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, and NSAIDS
How do methylxanthines work in treating asthma?
related to caffeine these cause direct relaxation of smooth muscle=bronchodilation. Usually used as last resort if nothing else is working or in ER.
How do leukotriene modifiers work in treating asthma?
block leukotrienes which are mediators of an immune response and cause inflammatory reaction and thus mucus production =bronchoconstriction
How do methylxanthines work in treating asthma?
related to caffeine these cause direct relaxation of smooth muscle=bronchodilation. Usually used as last resort if nothing else is working or in ER.
How do anti-inflammatory meds work in treating asthma and what are the classifications?
reduce inflammatory process in airways. Classifications: leukotriene modifiers, cortiocosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, and NSAIDS
When are leukotriene modifiers used and what are some side effects?
Used for prevention and take a while to build up in system. SE include: headache, cough, GI problems, liver problems, etc.
How do anti-inflammatory meds work in treating asthma and what are the classifications?
reduce inflammatory process in airways. Classifications: leukotriene modifiers, cortiocosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, and NSAIDS
How do leukotriene modifiers work in treating asthma?
block leukotrienes which are mediators of an immune response and cause inflammatory reaction and thus mucus production =bronchoconstriction
What are Cortiocosteroids?
inhaled meds used mainly for maintenance of asthma not for acute problems. Need to swish mouth with water after inhalation.
How do leukotriene modifiers work in treating asthma?
block leukotrienes which are mediators of an immune response and cause inflammatory reaction and thus mucus production =bronchoconstriction
When are leukotriene modifiers used and what are some side effects?
Used for prevention and take a while to build up in system. SE include: headache, cough, GI problems, liver problems, etc.
What are Cortiocosteroids?
inhaled meds used mainly for maintenance of asthma not for acute problems. Need to swish mouth with water after inhalation.
When are leukotriene modifiers used and what are some side effects?
Used for prevention and take a while to build up in system. SE include: headache, cough, GI problems, liver problems, etc.
What are Cortiocosteroids?
inhaled meds used mainly for maintenance of asthma not for acute problems. Need to swish mouth with water after inhalation.
True or False? When giving corticosteroids and bronchodilators both in puffer form we give the corticosteroids first.
False, you would want to give the bronchodilator first to open the airway then the corticosteroid.
How do Mast Cell stabilizers work in treating asthma?
these inhibit the release of histamine from mast cells. histamine causes bronchoconstriction.
What is status asmathicus?
asthma exacerbation, but is more pronounced and is potentially life threatening. Doesn't respond to normal tx.
What are some symptoms of status asmathicus and how is it treated?
Respiratory distress, dyspneic, wheezing, use of accessory muscles. May be given menthylxanthine drugs and O2.
What is emphysema?
alveoli lose elasticity. Air is trapped in lungs because alveoli aren't recoiling properly. The walls of the alveoli begin to break down and become large clusters of alveoli that don't work right. There is then a loss of surface area which effects diffusion of gases.
What is bronchitis?
Inflammation of the bronchioles. After exposure to an irritant inflammation occurs and can lead to hypertrophy of the glands in the bronchioles that produce mucus = more mucus, decreased lumen, air flow and diffusion
What things would you consider when doing an assessment for COPD?
smoking hx, occupation, exposure to chemicals or irritants, current complaints, dyspnea, URI, exercise tolerance, chest diameter (barrel), accessory muscle use, clubbing, etc.
What things can you do with a pt who has a diagnosis of "impaired gas exchange?"
maintain open airway, help find position that makes it easiest to breath, give fluids to thin secretions, monitor O2 therapy and stats.
What things can you do with a pt who has a diagnosis of "ineffective breathing pattern?"
have them breath through pursed lips which slows exhalation and prevents collapse of alveoli, help find position for easiest breathing, educate about conserving energy by activity planning, etc.
What things can you do with a pt who has a diagnosis of "ineffective airway clearance?"
Coughing exercises, suctioning, positioning, maintain good hydration, chest PT.