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100 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is wildlife management?
Any purposeful attempt to influence the
characteristics of a wildlife population or
What are the management goals on a population level?
endangered species, game species and pest species
What are the management goals on a community level?
rare species, all other speices
What is the morphological definition of a population?
a group of individuals that are morphologically, physiologically, or biochemically distinct from other groups
What is the biological definition of a population?
a group of individuals that can potentially breed among themselves and do not breed with individuals of other groups
What does wildlife management deal with?
strategies dealing with control of either community or population characteristics-both game and non-game species
What are some population characteristics?
population size (n)
Density (n/unit area)
age structure (adult/juvenile)
sex ratio (male/female)
What are some community characteristics?
species composition ( H’, J)
species richness (S)
patterns of relative abundance (pi)
What are some factors influencing current population size and status?
What is natality?
birth rate, usually expressed as the number of young produced per unit time
What is physiological natality?
(maximum biotic potential) maximum number of young produced under ideal conditions
What is realized, actual or ecological natality?
actual number of young produced under less than ideal conditions
What are some factors influencing natality?
Natality rate
# individuals producing young
# young produced by each individual
age structure of the population
sex ratio and breeding habits
social structure/behavior
population density
# of clutches per individual per year
What are the two mortality factors and what do they mean?
density-dependent - a factor that acts in proportion to the density of animals
density-independent – a factor that acts independently of animal density
What are some density independent mortality factors?
What does the J-curve represent?
a sudden decline or crash in population because of environmental factors such as loss of space, catastrophes, non-renewable resources
What are some density dependent mortality factors?
What causes an S-curve?
When a population is part of a community which provides for the recycling and renewal of resources and which exerts density dependent population controls the result is population growth decelerates and establishes an equilibrium related to the carrying capacity of the ecosystem
What does the 'A' phase represent on the population curves?
represents the lag phase in which growth proceeds slowly due to the initially small population
What does the 'B' phase represent on the population curves?
As the progeny of those individuals begin themselves to reproduce the population enters the acceleration phase
What does the 'C' phase represent on the population curve?
soon the population growth occurs exponentially , the exponential phase
What does the 'F' phase represent on the population curve..and which curve is it on?
Exponential growth cannot occur for long before environmental resistance takes over to either produce a population crash, on the J-curve
What does phase D represent on the population curve? and what curve is it on?
produce the deceleration phase, the S-curve
What is the 'E' phase represent on the population curve? and on what curve?
is the equilibrium is the point at which increases to the population from births exactly balance decreases due to deaths. The equilibrium may be only short-lived giving way to repeated fluctuations with changes in birth rates and death rates. , on the S-curve
What is the carrying capacity?
is the population density which the ecosystem can support. its not a stable unchanging parameter but rather a dynamic variable depending on environmental conditions. , fluctuations that occur around the resource limit
What is does the 'G' phase represent on the population curve? what curve?
the result of the carrying capacity will be dynamic fluctuation of the population, seen on the 'G' curve
What do the density dependent factors which result in equilibrium or controlled population include?
include intraspecific competition for resources, mates, territories, etc., as well as predation, and endemic disease
What does Type 1 survivorship curve represent?
animals that are large, or relatively immune to mortality, some mortality may occur but usually they live to old age. humans are in this group
What does type 2 survivorship curve represent?
would include most prey, especially grazing mammals, which are subject to high initial predation followed by continued predation at a fairly constant rate throughout their lifespan.
What does type 3 survivorship curve represent?
would be those species which produce tremendous numbers of young because most will be eaten, only a few adults surviving to reproduce. Insects, many fish, etc. make up this group.
What is emigration?
movement out of a population
What is immigration?
movement into a population
Why are emigration and immigration considered dispersal?
dispersal usually applies to the permanent movement of an individual away from a population or a natal area
What type of organisms typically demonstrate dispersal?
subordinates, maturing young, usually their fate is poor, they tend to be popular among a certain class-sex, usually in populations with high densities or productivity
What is innate dispersal?
tendency of young to leave their natal areas, and thereby prevent inbreeding
What is environmental dispersal?
behavioral response to stresses such as shortages of food or space
What are the effects of dispersal?
Maintenance of genetic variability within the species
repopulation of depleted areas
colonization of new areas when suitable habitat becomes available
What influences the fate of a disperser?
health of disperser prior to leaving
status of disperser in new population
habitat quality in new area
distance to new home area
habitat quality along dispersal route
environmental conditions during dispersal
What is a minimal viable population size?
“ the smallest population that still has some reasonable probability of survival for some time in the future”
What is stochasticity (demographic uncertainty)?
uncertainty resulting from random variation in reproductive success and survivorship at the individual level
What is environmental uncertainty?
uncertainty as a result of random variation of characteristics of habitat quality (food, cover, etc.) that result in loss of the population or enough of the population to lead to extinction
What is genetic uncertainty?
uncertainty as a result of random genetic changes which cause loss of individual viability/productivity
What factors of chance can lead to extinction?
demographic uncertainty, environmental uncertainty, and genetic uncertainty
What events can lead to genetic stochasticity?
founder effect
genetic bottleneck
genetic drift
What are some harvest characteristics?
age structure, sex ratio, quality
What are the groups of nongame species?
endangered species, rare species, pest species all other species
What are the goal's of managing the pest species?
reducing the population to a point at which their negative impacts are tolerable and prevent them from re-building their populations
What are the management goals for rare species?
to manage their environment so prevent them from becoming endangered or local extinction
What is extirpation?
local extinction
How are all other species (in non-game) evaluated?
they are evaluated on a community level, their actual population size is unknown..just assumed to be ok
What designates a game species?
What is the working definition for non-game species?
not harvested for sport, pests, rare, endangered, or all others, no regulated seasons for harvest, may or may not be protected by legislation
How are endangered species protected?
state or federally
What is non-game wildlife?
a legal designation for certain wildlife species that are not harvested and that are given some sort of legalized protection
What are charismatic species?
species ones people like (bald eagles) usually rare b/c of something we've done
What is a keystone species?
if you remove the species the system fails
What is an umbrella species?
benefits many species, ex. red- cockaded woodpecker
What is wildlife management?
any purposefuly attempt to influence wildlife in a positive or negative fashion
What are negative influences of wildlife management?
eradication of varmints, invasives or introduced, reduction
What are Desmond's wildlife values? and describe each.
game-pursuit for sport, commercial-direct sale, ethical-responsibility of stewardship, scientific-scientific study, ecological-function in ecosystems w/humans, aethetic-enrichment to our experiences, negative-wildlife causes damage or injury
What did Aldo Leopold largely influence?
What are Malcolm Hunter's values that influence views of wildlife? describe
culture-what is food?, urban vs. rural-regular interaction vs. isolation, gender, age, occupation-amt. money you make allows you to travel to see more wildlife, income, education
What are Stephen Kellert's values that influence views on wildlife? and describe each
naturalistic-showing an interest in & affection for wild, ecologistic-concern w/ecosystems and interrelationships b/n sps. & their habitats, humanistic-strong affection for ind. animals (i.e.pets), moralistic-ethical treatment of animals, scieintific-intellectual interest, aesthetic-physical attractiveness & charisma of animals, utlitarian-practical value of wildlife habitats
dominionistic-mastery & control of animals, typically in sporting situations
negativistic-animal avoidance due to fear or dislike
neutralistic-passive avoidance of animals due to lack of interest
What is anthropomorphism?
giving human characteristics to animals
i.e.charlotte's web
What are Kellert's Big Five?
Humanistic, neutralistic, moralistic, utlitarian, aethetic
What is the ultimate authority of wildlife laws in the US?
US constitution
What are statuatory laws?
enacted by congress for protection of specific animals or resource protection (e.g. NEPA)
What is common law?
refers to the body of court decisions resulting from custom and traditional practices –relevant to negligence, nuisance, trespass etc…
What is case law?
Law—refers to interpretations and rulings in courts—often open to interpretation and ambiguous- decisions reflect changing attitudes and values of the public. Forms much of the basis for federal control of wildlife in commerce and management on federal lands.
What are treaties?
Form the basis for much of the federal involvement in wildlife conservation and management. Represent statutory laws when ratified by congress (also often in agreement across international boundaries)
What is "sodbuster" and "swampbuster"?
highly erodible land conservation and wetland conservation
In 1980s what did the US Farm Bill do?
showed the most concern the US has ever had for its environment
What did the Swampbuster provision of the Farm Bill do?
denied any farmer looking for loans or farmer insurance if they were using wetlands for crop use
What is the CRP?
the first defined program under the Farm Bill-conserves and improves soil, water and natural resources, such as grazing land, wetlands and wildlife on farms and ranches
What is the US Farm Bill?
The Food and Security Act of 1985, sodbuster and swampbuster, CRP, WRP-wetlands reserve program-1990 Farm Bill-make payments for 30 years to landowners, CSP-conservation security program, EQUIP-environmental quality incentives program, GRP-Grassland Reserves program, WHIP-Wildlife Habitat incentives program
What is TIMO?
Timber investment management operation
What are two categories of valuation?
instrumental, utlitarian
What values do plants and animals hold?
agricultural, medicinal, ecological and commercial values
How much do we depend on plants for food?
90% of our food
How man plants are edible?
What percent of our presecriptions come from different species?
What is psycho-spiritual valuation and how much does this bring annually?
the enjoyment we get from being outdoors and enjoying wildlife, 59 million
What is an eco-centric viewpoint?
that humans are just part of the equation and its not all about us.
What is monetizing?
placing a dollar value on a species, communities, processes
What act protects the CEF and when was it enacted, and what does it do?
Bankhead-Jones Farm Tenant Act. 1937-land conservation and utilization-protect wildlife and natural resources
What is the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act?
Dingell-Johnson Act of 1950, financial assistance for state fish restoration
What is the Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp Act?
the Duck Stamp Act, requires bird stamp for hungting and uses funds for bird conservation
What is the ESA?
Endangered Species Act of 1973, protects species that are listed as endangered or threatened, CITES
Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act?
Pittman-Robertson Act-1937-taxes of arms, revenue to provide for wildlife research and management
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act?
Non-game Act-1980, encourages state to provide conservation for those animals that do not get hunted, Migratory Nongame Birds-priority for certain bird species in 1988
What is the Lacey Act?
disallows state to state trade in wildlife, 1900, 1981, put into forcement measures for interstate track, commerce, illegal to have an activities against the federal law (for. ex bald eagle)
Marine Mammal Protection Act?
1972, responsibility to conserve marine mammals, Dept. of Commerce and Interior
What is the Migratory Bird Treaty Act?
among several country, unlawful to have activities with migratory birds,
What is the NEPA?
National Environmental Policy Act, 1969, agencies required to submit an environmental impact statement(EIS)
What is FOIA?
Freedom of Information Act-like being audited by the public NEPA
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act?
protects the Chattooga Watershed, protection around watershed, 1968
What is the Wild Bird Conservation Act?
1992, tries to control the trade in wild birds, qualifying bird facilities
Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act?
protects wild horses and burros from captivity, branding, harassment and death
What is the Wilderness Act?
1964, preserves wilderness, roadless areas or islands, so all of the US is not occupied
What are the years of enactment for these acts:
Wild Bird Conservation Act, NEPA,Marine Mammal Protection Act, Lacey Act Amendments, Food Security Act, ESA,
1992,1969, 1972, 1981, 1985 , 1973