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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where do osteocytes reside
lacunae
another name for volkmanns
perforating canal
concentric lamellae together make up
osteon
osteocytic cytoplasmic processes
canaliciuli
haversian canal
central canal
primary curvatures of the back
thoracic and sacral
secondary curvatures of the back
cervical and lumbar
interstitial lamellae
remnants of osteons
produced during growth of bone
fill in spaces between osteons
kyphosis
exaggeration of normal thoracic curvature
lordosis
exaggeration of lumbar curve - prominent abdomen and buttocks
scoliosis
abnormal lateral curvature, often in adolescent females
manubrium articulates with the costal cartilage of which ribs
1 and 2
sternum attaches to which ribs
2nd through 10th
which costal cartilages fuse to form the costal margin
8, 9 10th costal cartilages
whats the costal angle
where the costal cartilages comes together with the xiphoid
xiphoid process
attachment for muscles
usually not ossified before age 25
how many true ribs
7
how many false ribs
5
how many floating ribs
and which ribs
2 floating ribs

11th and 12th
how many pairs of ribs
12
functino of the costal groove
depressed inner canal that protects costal veins and nerves
what part of the ribs articulates with the vertebrae
head and tubercle of rib
spina bifida
congential defect where the vertebral laminae fail to fuse
name some developmental diseases of the bone
spina bifida
cleft lip/palate
disease of bone due to nutrition/hormonal
rickets -vit D deficiency
osteomalacia - demineralizaton due to vitamin D deficiency in adults
gigantism - hypersecretoin of GH PRIOR to ossification of growth plates
acromegaly - hypersecretion of GH AFTER ossification of growth plates
dwarfism - GH deficiency
disease of bone due to neoplasms
osteoma- benign tumor of bone, often the skull
osteoid osteomas - painful tumor of long bone
osteogenic sarcoma - malignant (cancerous) tumor

*neoplasam = tumor*
diseases of bone due to aging
osteoporosis - weakening of bones due to Ca loss

aging, inactivity, poor diet, hormonal imbalances
pectoral girdle composed of
scapulae and clavicles
attached to the axial skeleton at the sternoclavicular joint
coracoid process serves as the attachment for what muscle
biceps brachii
acromion process serves as the atachment site for part of what muscle
part of the trapezius
which process of the scapula articulates with the scapula, forms the acromioclavicular joint
acromion
what strucutre on the humerus articulates with the radius and what articulates wtih the ulna
capitulum --> radius

trochlea --> ulna
what structures of the humerus allows movement of the ulna
coronoid and olecranon fossae
what is the name of the notch on the ulna that articulates with the humerus
trochlear notch
radial head is proximal or distal?

ulna head is proximal or distal?
radial head is proximal

ulna head is distal
where do the biceps insert
on the radial tuberosity
what is lateral epicondylitis
tennis elbow due to six extensor muscles of hand and wrist that originate here
colle's fracture
distal fracture of the radius that results from falling and using hands to break the fall
what fractures often result from falling and using hands to break the fall
radial head
neck
distal (colle's)
pulled elbow
radial head dislocatoin
usually in kids less than 5 yrs old.
symptoms: immediate pain, flexion of the elbow,

treatment: firm supinaiton of the hand, elbow held at 90 degrees flexion
pelvic girdle consists of ____ jointed anteriorly at the ____ and posteriorly at the ____.
pelvic girdle consists of _two ossa coxae___ jointed anteriorly at the _symphysis pubic___ and posteriorly at the _sacrum___.
false pelvis is above or below the base of the sacrum (top of the sacrum)
everything above is greater (false) pelvis

everything below is the lesser (true) pelvis
what attaches to the iliac tuberosity
the sacroiliac ligament
what supports weight when we sit
the ischial tuberosity
obturator foramen
part of the ischium

covered by membrane and acts as site of attachment for muscles and viscera
pubis
anterior bone of os coxae
male vs female pelvic inlet
heart shaped male

round/oval female
male vs female obturator foramen
male oval
female triangular
male vs female acetabulum
male faces laterally

female faces anteriorly
male vs female symphysis pubis
male deeper longer

female shallower shorter
male vs female pubic arch
male angle less than 90

female angle greater than 90
fovea capitis
on head of femur

attachment of ligamentum teres
base of patella
on top
patella likely to be fractured or dislocated
because its confined within the quadriceps tendon its more likely to be dislocated laterally
medial malleolus does what
helps position the talus
tibial tuberosity attaches to what
patellar ligament
how many bones in the foot (pes)
26

tarsus

metatarsus

phalanges
largest of foot bones
calcaneus (heel bone)
polydactyly
syndactyly
talipes
polydactyly - extra digits
syndactyly - webbed digits
talipes - clubfoot: sole of the foot is twisted medially
fractures can be of two types
pathologic (due to a disease that weakens the bone)

traumatic
traumatic fracture types
simple or closed
compound or open
partial or fissured
complete
comminuted
spiral
greenstick
impacted
depressed
displaced
non-displaced
fractured bone doesnt break through the skin
simple / closed
fractured bone is exposed to the surface of the skin
compound / open
bone is incompletely broken
fissured/ partial
fracture has separated the bone into two pieces
completed
bone is splintered into several fragments
comminuted
fracture line is twisted as it is broken
spiral
incomplete break in whcih one side is broken and other is bowed
greenstick
common in children
one oend of a broken bone is driven into another
impacted
fracture in which the bone fragments are not in anatomical alignment
displaced
broken portoin of bone is driven inward
depressed
fracture in whcih the bone fragments remain in anatomical alignment
non-displaced
synarthrosis
immovable joint

fibrous
cartilaginous

over time the bones may fuse
amphiarthrosis
slightly movalbe joint
diarthrosis
freely movable joint or synovial joint

subdivided according to the range of motion
types of joints
fibrous

cartilaginous

synovial **
synovial joint
articulating bones are capped with cartilage with ligaments frequently supporting them.

joints have fluid filled cavities

freely movalbe joint enclosed by a joint capsule compsed of dense regular CT

synovial fluid
articular cartilage covers bone
cartilage and fat bads
ligaments
tendons
bursae - small fluid filled pockets of CT filled with synovial fluid form where a tendon or ligament rubs against other tissues
synovial fluid
enclosed within the joint capsule
-lubriccates
-distrubtes nutrients
-shock absorption
articular cartilage
covers bones in the synovial joint

hyaline cartilage without perichondrium
nourished by synovial fluid
cartilage and fat pads in the synovial joint
cartilage in knee (menisci) lie beteween the articular surfaces

fibrocartilages cushion and guide articulating bones

fat pads - localized masses of adipose covered by snovial membranes acting as protective packing material
ligaments of synovial joint
joint capsule is continuous witht he periostea of the articulating bones

sprain is wehre some of the collagen of the ligaments is torn, the ligament survives, and the joint is not damaged

typically bone breaks before ligaments tears
tendosn of synovial joint
tendons pass around or crosss a joint and may limit the range of motion while providing mechanical support
bursae
small fluid filled pockets of CT filled with synovial fluid form where a tendon or ligament rubs against other tissues
tendon sheaths
modified tubular shaped bursa that surrounds tendons crossng bony surfaces like the wrist or ankle.
kinds of synovial joints
-gliding / planar
-hinge
-pivot
-ellipsoidal/condyloid
-saddle
-ball and socket
what type of joint allows side to side and back and forth movement with slight rotation
gliding or planar

articulating surfaces nearly flat, slide across one another
simplest type of joint movement

intercarpal and intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular joints
what type of joint describes the following
intercarpal and intertarsal joints, sternoclavicular joints
gliding / planar
what type of joint allows flexion and extension
like elbow and ankle
hinge
what joint allows rotation ONLY
pivot

like the atlas-axis joint
proximal radial-ulnar joint
what type of joint describes the following
like the atlas-axis joint
proximal radial-ulnar joint
pivot joint

allows rotation only
what joint allows flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, some circumductoin but NO rotatoin
ellipsoidal or condyloid

shaped like egg in spoon

atlanto-occipital joint
radiocarpal joint
metacarpal-phalangeal joints
metatarsal-phalangeal joints
what joint describes the following:

atlanto-occipital joint
radiocarpal joint
metacarpal-phalangeal joints
metatarsal-phalangeal joints
ellipsoidal / condyloid
whats the difference between an ellipsoidal and a ball and socket joint
ellipsoidal/condyloid provides NO ROTATION
what joint type is similar to the condyloid jont but the joint is freer because the egg is rotate 90 degrees
saddle

carpometacarpal joint of the pollex
carpometacarpal joint of the pollex is what type of synovial joint
saddle
shoulder joint and hip joints are examples of what type of synovial joint
ball and socket
proximal radial ulnar joint is what type of joint
pivot
radiocarpal joint is what type of joint
ellipsoidal or condyloid
atlanto occipital joint is what type of joint
ellipsoidal or condyloid
three joints of the knee
medial tibiofemoral
lateral tibiofemoral
patellofemoral: intermediate joint
____ cushion joint margins and assist bursa in reducing friction at the joint
prominent fat pads
name the ligaments of the knee
patellar
popliteal ligaments
ACL, PCL
patellar ligaments
tendons from the quads pass over the anterior surface of the joint with the patella embedded in the tendon.

distally the patellar ligament continue towards its insertion at the tibial tuberosity
patella is supported medially and laterally by 2 ligamentous bands called
the patellar retinaculae
these 2 ligaments extend between the femur and the heads of the tibia and fibula
popliteal ligaments
ACL nad PCL do what
attach the tibial intercondylar area to the condyles of the femur

anterior andposterior refer to their sites of origin on the tibia.

cruciate is latin from cross
what ligaments reinforce the medial and lateral joint surfaces of the knee
tibial (medial) and fibular (lateral) collateral ligaments

these ONLY tighten when the knee is at full extension
locking of the knee
extended position
ACL is taut
lateral meniscus jams between the tibia and femur

*allows for standing for prolonged periods of time without muscle fatigue. if the locked knee is struck from the side, the lateral meniscus can tear and the damage to the supporting ligaments (often the ACL) occurs
skeletal muscle functions
movement
heat
posture
guard entraces and exits
class 1 lever example
spelnius capitus

effort fulcrom resistance
class 2 lever example
gastroc

fulcrum resistance effort
class 3 lever example
biceps brachii
fulcrum effort resistance
aponeurosis
flattened sheet like tendons
splenius capitus, which class lever
class 1 lever
teeter totter
gastroc, which class lever
class 2 lever


base of toes is the fulcrum

wheelbarrel
biceps brachii, which class lever
class 3 lever

elbow joint is the fulcrum
three groups of skeletal muscle
fast twitch glycolytic type IIb (hands & eyelids), majority of body muscle fibers, largest, anaerobic, few mitochondria, low myoglobin concentrations - pale

slow twitch oxidative fype I (soleus), smallest, longest contraction duration, fatigue resistant, richer capillary network, more mitochondria, lots of myoglobin, walking and standing

fast twitch oxidative type IIa (gastroc), intermediate size, some myoglobin, rely on BOTH aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, can change with training, RARE in humans
myofibrils
bundles of myofilaments (actin and myosin) anchored at each end of teh sarcolemma (plasma membrane of a muscle cell)
A bands
thick myosin filaments, divided into central lighter zone (H zone) which is myosin only
during contraction, which bands shorten
i bands

h zone
endomysium
surrounds individual fibers and binds adjacent fibers together and supports capillaries and nerve endings servign themuscle
perimysium
binds groups ofmuscle fibers together into bundles called fasicles
epimysium
covers the entire muscle and is continuous with the tendon
fascia
fibrous CT of varying thickness that covers muscle and attaches to the skin

superficial fascia secures the skin to the underlying structures (butt, abdominal wall is thick, back of hand, elbow andn face is thin

deep fascia is an inward extension of superfiical fascia, which lacks adipose tissue and blends with the epimysium, surrounds adjacent muscles forming functional compartmentalized groups
superficial fascia
secures the skin to the underlying structures (butt, abdominal wall is thick, back of hand, elbow andn face is thin
deep fascia
is an inward extension of superfiical fascia, which lacks adipose tissue and blends with the epimysium, surrounds adjacent muscles forming functional compartmentalized groups
long spindle like cells with a single nucleus and lack striations
smooth muscles
which type of muscle produces peristalsis
SM
where would you find more thin:thick myofilaments

smooth muscle or skeletal muscle
more thin in smooth muscle (16:1)than in striated muscle (2:1)
what type of junctions are found bertween smooth muscles
gap junctions (electrical synapses) between adjacent cells, allow them to behave as a single unit. visceral SM because it forms walls fo internal orgnas
which type of muscle displays pacemaker activity
smooth muscle
what type of contraction do you find in the esophagus and urinary bladder
tonic, to maintain pressure
sphincters,
function to close off an organ and only relax to let material enter or leave
what type of contraction is found in the GI tract, ureters, uterine tubes and ductus deferens
rhythmic (single unit smooth muscle, circular and longintudinal SM,
produces peristasis, propel contents in ONE direction
multiunit smooth muscle contracts by what mechanism

found where
have few gap junctions so are stimulated by nerve fibers

riis, ciliary body of eye, male repro tract, uterus

braxton hicks contractions