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119 Cards in this Set

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1901 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays (or x-rays)"
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
1902 "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"
Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Pieter Zeeman
None
1903 "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"
Antoine Henri Becquerel
1903 "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"
Pierre and Marie Curie
1904 "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
1905 "for his work on cathode rays"
Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard
1906 "in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"
Sir Joseph John Thomson
1907 "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and meteorological investigations carried out with their aid"
Albert Abraham Michelson
None
1908 "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"
Gabriel Lippmann
1909 "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"
Guglielmo Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun
1910 "For his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
None
1911 "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat."
Wilhelm Wien
1912 "For his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys."
Nils Gustaf Dalén
1913 "For his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"
Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes
1914 "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals."
Max von Laue
1915 "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays."
Sir William Henry Bragg and William Lawrence Bragg
1917 "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements."
Charles Glover Barkla
1918 "In recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta."
Max Planck
1919 "For his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"
Johannes Stark
None
1920 "in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"
Charles Edouard Guillaume
1921 "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his explanation of the photoelectric effect"
Albert Einstein
1922 "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"
Niels Henrik David Bohr
1923 "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"
Robert Andrews Millikan
1924 "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"
Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn
1925 "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"
James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz
1926 "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"
Jean Baptiste Perrin
1927 "for his discovery of the effect named after him"
Arthur Holly Compton
None
1927 "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"
Charles Thomson Rees Wilson
None
1928 "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"
Owen Willans Richardson
1929 "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"
Prince Louis-Victor Pierre Raymond de Broglie
None
1930 "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
1932 "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"
Werner Karl Heisenberg
1933 "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"
Erwin Schrödinger and Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac
1935 "for the discovery of the neutron"
James Chadwick
1936 "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"
Victor Franz Hess
1936 "for his discovery of the positron"
Carl David Anderson
1937 "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"
Clinton Joseph Davisson and George Paget Thomson
None
1938 "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"
Enrico Fermi
1939 "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"
Ernest Orlando Lawrence
1943 "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"
Otto Stern
1944 "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"
Isidor Isaac Rabi
1945 "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"
Wolfgang Pauli
1946 "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"
Percy Williams Bridgman
1947 "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"
Sir Edward Victor Appleton
1948 "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"
Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett
1949 "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"
Hideki Yukawa
None
1950 "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"
Cecil Frank Powell
1951 "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
1952 "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
1953 "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
Frits (Frederik) Zernike
1954 "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
Max Born
1954 "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
Walther Bothe
1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"
Willis Eugene Lamb
None
1955 "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
Polykarp Kusch
1956 "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Houser Brattain
1957 "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee
1958 "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect"
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il'ia Frank, and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
1959 "for their discovery of the antiproton"
Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
1960 "for the invention of the bubble chamber"
Donald Arthur Glaser
1961 "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Robert Hofstadter
1961 "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
None
1962 "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
Lev Davidovich Landau
1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Eugene Paul Wigner
1963 "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
1964 "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov, and Aleksandr Prokhorov
1965 "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, and Richard Phillips Feynman
1966 "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
Alfred Kastler
1967 "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Hans Albrecht Bethe
1968 "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
Luis Walter Alvarez
1969 "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"
Murray Gell-Mann
None
1970 "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
1970 "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
Louis Eugene Félix Néel
1971 "for his invention and development of the holographic method"
Dennis Gabor
1972 "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer
1973 "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
1973 "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"
Brian David Josephson
1974 "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
1975 "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson, and Leo James Rainwater
1976 "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
None
1977 "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, and John Hasbrouck van Vleck
1978 "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
1978 "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
1979 "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg
1980 "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"
James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
None
1981 "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
1981 "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn
1982 "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
Kenneth G. Wilson
1983 "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
None
1983 "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
William Alfred Fowler
1984 "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
1985 "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
Klaus von Klitzing
1986 "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Ernst Ruska
1986 "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
1987 "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller
1988 "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
Leon Max Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger
1989 "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Norman Foster Ramsey
1989 "for the development of the ion trap technique"
Hans Georg Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
1990 "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Jerome Isaac Friedman, Henry Way Kendal, and Richard Edward Taylor
1991 "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
1992 "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
Georges Charpak
1993 "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
1994 "for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Bertram Neville Brockhouse
1994 "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
Clifford Glenwood Shull
1995 "for the discovery of the tau lepton"
Martin Lewis Perl
1995 "for the detection of the neutrino"
Frederick Reines
1996 "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
David Morris Lee, Douglas Dean Osheroff, and Robert Coleman Richardson
1997 "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Daniel Phillips
1998 "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst Ludwig Störmer, and Daniel Chee Tsui
None
1999 "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
2000 "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
2000 "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
Jack St. Clair Kilby
2001 "for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"
Eric Allin Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, and Carl Edwin Wieman
2002 "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"
Raymond Davis Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba
2002 "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"
Riccardo Giacconi
2003 "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"
Alexei Alexeevich Abrikosov, Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg and Anthony James Leggett
2004 "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"
David J. Gross, H. David Politzer and Frank Wilczek
2005 "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"
Roy J. Glauber
2005 "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"
John L. Hall and Theodor W. Hänsch
2006 "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"
John C. Mather and George F. Smoot