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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
1976 "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind". In other words: for discovery of the J/Ψ particle as it confirmed the idea that baryonic matter (such as the nuclei of atoms) is made out of quarks.
Burton Richter and Samuel Chao Chung Ting
1977 "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"
Philip Warren Anderson, Sir Nevill Francis Mott, and John Hasbrouck van Vleck
1978 "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"
Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa
1978 "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"
Arno Allan Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson
1979 "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"
Sheldon Lee Glashow, Abdus Salam, and Steven Weinberg
1980 "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons". See: CP-violation
James Watson Cronin and Val Logsdon Fitch
1981 "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"
Nicolaas Bloembergen and Arthur Leonard Schawlow
1981 "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"
Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn
1982 "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"
Kenneth G. Wilson
1983 "for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars". See Chandrasekhar limit
Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
1983 "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"
William Alfred Fowler
1984 "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"
Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer
1985 "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"
Klaus von Klitzing
1986 "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"
Ernst Ruska
1986 "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"
Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer
1987 "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"
Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller
1988 "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"
Leon Max Lederman, Melvin Schwartz, and Jack Steinberger
1989 "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"
Norman Foster Ramsey
1989 "for the development of the ion trap technique"
Hans Georg Dehmelt and Wolfgang Paul
1990 "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"
Jerome Isaac Friedman, Henry Way Kendal, and Richard Edward Taylor
1991 "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
1992 "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"
Georges Charpak
1993 "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"
Russell Alan Hulse and Joseph Hooton Taylor Jr.
1994 "for the development of neutron spectroscopy"
Bertram Neville Brockhouse
1994 "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"
Clifford Glenwood Shull
1995 "for the discovery of the tau lepton"
Martin Lewis Perl
1995 "for the detection of the neutrino"
Frederick Reines
1996 "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"
David Morris Lee, Douglas Dean Osheroff, and Robert Coleman Richardson
1997 "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"
Steven Chu, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, and William Daniel Phillips
1998 "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations". See: Quantum Hall effect
Robert B. Laughlin, Horst Ludwig Störmer, and Daniel Chee Tsui
1999 "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"
Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus J.G. Veltman
2000 "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"
Zhores Ivanovich Alferov and Herbert Kroemer
2000 "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"
Jack St. Clair Kilby