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31 Cards in this Set

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1951 "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"
Sir John Douglas Cockcroft and Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton
1952 "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"
Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell
1953 "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"
Frits (Frederik) Zernike
1954 "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"
Max Born
1954 "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"
Walther Bothe
1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum".
Willis Eugene Lamb
1955 "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"
Polykarp Kusch
1956 "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"
William Bradford Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Houser Brattain
1957 "for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"
Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee
1958 "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov-Vavilov effect"
Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov, Il'ia Frank, and Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm
1959 "for their discovery of the antiproton"
Emilio Gino Segrè and Owen Chamberlain
1960 "for the invention of the bubble chamber"
Donald Arthur Glaser
1961 "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"
Robert Hofstadter
1961 "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name".
Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer
1962 "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"
Lev Davidovich Landau
1963 "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"
Eugene Paul Wigner
1963 "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"
Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. Hans D. Jensen
1964 "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"
Charles Hard Townes, Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov, and Aleksandr Prokhorov
1965 "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga, Julian Schwinger, and Richard Phillips Feynman
1966 "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"
Alfred Kastler
1967 "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"
Hans Albrecht Bethe
1968 "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"
Luis Walter Alvarez
1969 "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions".
Murray Gell-Mann
1970 "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"
Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén
1970 "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"
Louis Eugene Félix Néel
1971 "for his invention and development of the holographic method"
Dennis Gabor
1972 "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"
John Bardeen, Leon Neil Cooper, and John Robert Schrieffer
1973 "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"
Leo Esaki and Ivar Giaever
1973 "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"
Brian David Josephson
1974 "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"
Sir Martin Ryle and Antony Hewish
1975 "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"
Aage Niels Bohr, Ben Roy Mottelson, and Leo James Rainwater