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155 Cards in this Set

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afferent
something coming in includes sensory
efferent
out flow information includes motor
Two fundamentals of neurons system
CNS and PNS
CNS
Include brain and spinal cord
PNS
include spinal nerves, cranial nerves, ganglia, efferent and afferent
Classification of physiollogy
Somatic nerves system
Automatic nervous system
Somatic nerves
muscle, skin, mucous membrane
automatic nervous system
smooth, glands of internal organ, bloood vessel, afferent and efferent,
Functional units
neurons and glial cells
neurons
monsynaptic, polysynatpic
glial cells
support or neuroglial cellss, (diesase cocuring)
nuclei CNS include
projection neurons and interneurons
ganglia
PNS
Tracts and Commisures consist of
T.C.N.M
Tracts in the spinal c ord columns (funicali)
Commisures: horizontal connection
Neuropils
Multiple tracts and redundancy
commisures are
horizontal connection
Types of Synapes in CNS
AAAD
axondendritic
axosomatic
axoaxomic
dendrodentritic
excitory
axondendritic
axoaxomic
medulators
axosomatic
inhibitory
excitory or inhibitory
dendrodentritic
Neuroglia charactertistic
10/1
macroglia
astrocytes (proplasmic and fibrous)
Macrgolia has support
astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Schwann Cells (PnS)
Macrcoglia which is from PNS and CNS)
oligodendrocytes (CNS)
Schwann Cells Pns
Microglia
macrophages
Two distinguishes of neurons
axons
glial cells out of 10 -1
Dgeneration and Regeneration
Wallerian degernation
Axon Reaction (Chromatolysis)
Steps 1
Framentation of axon and myelin occurs in distal stump
Step 2
Schwann cells form cord. grow into cut, and united stumps. macrophages engluf degenerated axon and myelin
step 4
Axon continues to grow into distal stymp and is enfolded by Schwann Cells
Regenration in the PNS
accident:
nerve crush-truma and transected, nerve transection
Ex of PNS trauma
VerTEBRAL cOLUM sPINAL cORD
Regneration in the CNS
where?
typically abortive" ex: vertabl, spinal tract
Collateral Sprouting
Damage the motor nurons and atrophy
Signaling in Nervous System
Depolarization, inhibit, modulate
Step 3
Axon sends into network of schwann cellls and then starts grwoing along cord of schwann
Membrane Potention Characterisitic
Resting Potential 70 ml
Maintenance of equilibrium
Characteristic of maintence of equilibrium
Chemical force
electrical force
chemical force
chem force move NA inward and K outward
electrical force
tends to move Na and K inword
Generation Potential
"mechanoreceptors" SST, corpusal, 'graded'
Sequence of Action Potentials
step1
incoming deploration
sequence AP
step2
sodium channels open
sequence Ap
step 3
membrane begins to depolarize
sequence Ap
step 4
if the action continues (threshold) or all or none potential
step 5 Ap
K channels open leading to hyperpolarization
3 Effects of myelination
"Slatatory conduction "
decresed metabolic cost
increased conduction velocity
Salttatory define
Conducts and saves metabolic cost
Salatory and AP
a) Action potential of initial signal
b) depolarization to thresholds of node
c) action potentiol of node sodium exposed in Rodes of Randium
Types of Fibers
A- large and myelinated (large and rapid)
B- small and myelinated
C-fibers smallest and unmyelinated
A Fibers
sensory motor for signal
large diameter means increase speed
B fibers
small, little slower, autonomic function
C fibers
Smallext and unmyelinated
slowest
server pain autonic function
Synaptic Transmission
Fast and slow
slow is second messenger
fast is directly linked
Directly linked
ligand-gated ion channel
excitory or inhibitory
Second Messenger
activation of G protein
"cascade" of events that take time excitory or inhibitory but msots often modulatory
Neuromuscular junction
Motor end plate
ex: myienstin velvis
Synaptic Transmission
find fast and slow
fast is directly linked
slow is second messenger
examples of fast
ligand-gated ion channel
excitory or inhibitory
examples of second messenger
activation of G protein
cascade of events that take time
excitory or inhibitory but often modulatory
Neuromuscular junction (motor end plate)
myienstina velvis
Excitory and Inhibitory Synaptic Actions
Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP)
Inhibory post synaptic potentials (IPSPS_
EPSP
Neurotransmitter binds to postsynaptic sidds
Opens or closses channel: depolarization
EPSP Opens and Closes
Opens: deplorization, sodium calcium and axondendriticit
closes: potasium
IPSP
more likely ions get in
inceases premeability to Cl or k
hyperpoliztion
axosmatian general
IPSP axon:
axosmatian
EPSP: axon
axondendritic
Presynaptic Inhibiton
controls transmission of the postsynaptic axon
sets the gain at the input
presynaptic
axon to axon
direct inhibiton
will not fire
inhibitory interneurons
decreased fireing-prevent injury joint/tissue
integration 3
Effect of multiple inputs
Integration of excitory an inhibitory signals
Rate and pattern also affect the neuron
Lesion
zone of localized dysfunction of PNS or CNS
Types of Lesion
Anatomic
Physiologic
Examples of Anatomic lesion
Stroke brain trama
examples of physioloig lesion
metabolic insufiency
lost part of brain
Symptoms
subjective sensation
"I have a headache"
signs
object abnormalities based on examination or laboratory
MRi
Positive abnormalities
"inapperopriate excitation"
ex: seizure, spasticyt
Syndrome
Signs and symptoms associated with each other
suggest a comon orgin
Wallenber's syndrome
Where is the lesion?
Focal Process
Multifocal Process
Diffuse Process
Focal process lesion
focal pathology
"a single tension"
Multifocal Process lesion
multifocal pituary
many lesion in location
Diffuse process
diffuse dysfunction produced by toxin and metabolic abnormalites
rostrocaudal localization
weakness of the left leg
Nostrol
determine the nuclei and fiber tracts that are affected and to consider the constellation of structures involved
transverse locltion
find where the lesion to consider the transver plane and within the cross sectionolnf the brain or spoinal cord
Causes of Dysfunction
Destruction
Compression
Comprise of ventricular pathways or vasculature
Destruction (neurvous or glial cells)
vascular comprise (stroke/interior)
Parkinson disease
parkinson disease
destruction of myelin (inflamtion)
destruction of axons (spinal cord injury not reversible)
Compression of the brain
ex: subdural hematoma (uncontrol bleeding) bone spurs
compression of the brain
herniated disks
Compression of ventricular pathways or vasculature
obstruction of cerebral spinal fluid
Occlusion of arteries ( cluld lead to infracture)
Spinal roots
how many
31 nerves
Nerves
Venetral root and dorsal
intervertrebral foramina
Ventral root and dorsal
how many rootlet
1-8 rootlet
Ventral roots
primarily motor (Ventral Efferent motor)
Dorsal Roots
Prmarily sensory(Dorsal afferent sensory)
Types of Nerve Fibers
Somatic Efferent fibers
Somatic Afferent Fibers
Visceral Efferent Fibers
Visceral Afferent fibers
Somatic Efferent Fibers
innvervate skeletal muscle
Somatic Afferent Fibers
ex: skin, joints, muscle (sensory)
Visceral Efferent Fibers
ex: autonomic fibers (sympathetic), parasympathtic fibers
Viscerall Afferent fibers
Visceral sensory
dermatomes
diagram of region of skin
Myotomes
jTesting Muscle Function pg. 328
Internal Divsion of spinal
gray
and white meatter
gray matter
columns, intermedial lateral, dorsal gray column
laminas
coluns (gray matter)
ventral horn
contains somatic motor, LMN (lower motor neuron)
intermedial lateral (gray matter)
autonmic nervous system
dorsal gray column
somatic sensory
part of pain pathway
Laminas
1 to 4
4 and 5
7
8
9
Laminas 1-4
exteroceptive inforamtion
Outside enviorment
V and iV
proprioceptice information
VII
relay between mid brain and cerebellum
vIII
modulates motor activates mainly gamma motor neurons
ix
main motor area
alpha and gamma motor neurons somatopic organization
white matter
columns
dorsal, lateral, ventral, myelinated and unmyelinated fibers
Pathways in white matter
Descending fiber system
Vestibulospinal tracts
Rubrospinal tract-flexor
tectopsinal tract head
medial longitudinal fasciculus
Fasciulus
cordination of head and eye movements
Spinothalamic tract
(ventrolateral/anterolateral)
crude and pain
Ddorsal sphinocerebellar
and ventral spinocerebellar
provide input from the spinal cord to cerebellum
spinoretciular pathways
deep pain, small diameter
Refflexes components
receptors
afferent neuron
effector
Types of Reflexes
Superficial (skin)
tendon ( myotatic stretch reflex)
visceral
patholgical (abnormal)
Poly synaptic Reflexes
Reciprocal (0n and off)
Divergence (exhibit or excitory)
Summation
Hiearchy
Muscle spindle
specialised intrafusal muscle
stretch also strentc
nuclear bag to dynamic respons
reciprocal inhibiton( on or off)
Refflexes
gamma motro
lamina 9
Lesion and disorder
lower and upper
lower lesion motor
signs: flaccid paralysis, atrophy, deep tendon reflexes absent, fasicilation
upper motor
white matter, corex
signs: spastic paralysis
little or no atrophy
hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
pathological reflexes present
Investing membranes
ddrua mater
arachnoid
pia matter
dentate ligameClinical Corrnt
denticulate ligament
Vertebral columm
Clinical correlation
spinafida
Clinical Correlation
herniated disc
Invertebral foramina slenosis (repitive loading)
spondylosis
spinafida
spondylosis
can produce rodiculer signs and symkptoms
spinafida
failure of neural tube to close at caudal end types
Types of spinafida
1) spsinafida oculta
2) spina bifida with
spinabifida with
menigocele or meningomyelocele
Lumbar Puncture (spinal tap)
spinal cords end of L1
performed at L4 and l5 junction into dural sac between arachnoid and pia matter
Imaging of the spinal cord and spine
Roentgenography (plain fil xray)
Computedd tomography (CT scan)
Manetic resonance Imaging (MRI) soft tissue
Decesending system
tract: LC, AC, V
Lateral corticospinal
Anterior corticospina
Vestibulo tract
descending fibers
Rubrospina
Reticulospinal
Descending autonomic
tectospinal
medial Longitudinal fasciculus
Function descending Lateral corticospinal tract
fine function (controls distal musculature)
Modulation of sensory functions
Anterior corticospinal descending
Gross and postural motor function ( proximal and axial musculature)
Vestibulospinal tract
Postural reflexesq
Rubrospinal descending
motor function
Reticulospina descending
Modulation of sensory transmission (especiallly pain) Modulation of spinal reflexes
Descending autonomic
modulation of autonomic functions
tectospinal
reflex head turning
Medial longitundinal fasciculus descending
cordination of head and eye movement
Ascending fiber tract:
spinothalamic tract
dorsal spinocerebellar tract
spinothalamic tracts
sharp pain, temperature, crude touch
dorsal spino cerebellar tract
movement and position mechanism
ascending system
dorsal column
ventral spino cerebllar
spinoreticular pathway
dorsal column
finetouch, proprioception, two point discrimintion
ventral spinocerebellarqmovement and position mechanismqspinoreticular pathway
deep and chronic pain