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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
External anatomy of the spinal cord
conus ends at L1
spinal cord segment
8 cervical
12 thoraci
5 lumbar
5 sacral
few coccygeal
Outside the vertebral colum is refered to
peripheral nerve
the nerve roots exit
through intervertebral foramina
C8 between c7 and t1
ventral (anterior) constitue
motor outflow
dorsal ( posterior)
sensory
largest fibers Ia is
muscle spindles
A beta convey
impulses in skin and joints
Branches of Spinal Nerves
Posterior
anterior
Rami
meningeal
white rami
communicans
cord segment consist of
roots, ganglia, branches s
identify the division medial divison
Pacinian, muscle spindle, golgi and encapsulated ending
identify the later division
small
free nerve endings
somatic afferent fibers are
are sensory and unipolar
Types of Visceral Efferent Fibers
autonomic fibers ( motor)
sympathtic (L1 and L2) smooth muscle and glands
Parasympathtic (nerves III, Ix and X)
dermatomes of C's of the arms
C5,7, 8, and T1
arm
dermatomes for the anterior trunk
C4 and T2
thumb, middle finger, and 5 digit are
C6, C7, c8
nipple
T4
umbilicus T
t10
myotome refers
skeletal musculatur innerverated by the motor axons in givine spinal root
Deltoid and Biceps
C5
Diaphragm
C3 and C4
C7
Triceps
L3 L4
Quadriceps
S1 Gastrocnemius
gastrocenemius
Gray Columns consity of ventral and anterior horm but contains
alpha and gamma motor (lower motor
T1 to L2 within spinal segment
preganglionic symathing which would travel to the white rami communication
S2, S3, S4 give rised to
parasympathetic
dorsalateral fasiculus are small compat also called
Lissauer's tract
Dorsal and ventral gray matter are
narrow
tracts are made of
fiber bundles, of myelinated fibers of fasciculi
Dorsal column is divided into
medial portion (fasiculus gracilis)
and lateral portion (fasciculus cuneatus)
Descending corticospina tract
Medullary pyramind
lower motor
Vestibulospinal tracts two major fibers
lateral vestibular and medial vestibulospinal
reacts to fallling and essential control of antigravity
Map of corticospinal tract
descendend
lateral corticospinal tract
pyramidal tract medulla, pyramidal decussation
Map of dorsal colum
ascending
gracile nucleus (cuneate nucleus)
leminiscal decussation, fasciculus cuneatus
spasticity
hyperstretch
Polysynaptic reflexes
reciprocal
flexors are excited and extensors inhibited on one side of the body
polysynaptic reflexes
divergence
stimuli from a few rceptors are distributed to many motor neurons int he cord
Summation
Consecutive or simultaneous subthreshold
hierarchy
two antagonistic reflexs are elicited
Polysnpatic
propriospinal
Crossed of poly
can be afferent, ipsilateral and contraletaral
Lower vs. upper neuron lession
weakness
deep tendon reflexes,
babinski's reflex
atropy
fasciculation and fibrillation
tumor of dorsal root
produce pain
loss of sensory
deep tendon reflexes
tumor of menings
compress of spinal cord,
A lesion
1. Anterior Corticospinal tract
2. Motor, efferent
3. gross motor dysfunction of leg (paresis) mostly; ipsilateral side, and postural dysfunction (Ant Corticospinal tract main purpose is postural control, therefore, little affect on arm).
4. same, but arm uninvolved.
B LESSION
1. Lower Motor Neuron Pool, Lamina IX
2. Motor, efferent
3. Atrophy, weakness, fasiculations, deep tendon reflexes absent-of the ipsilateral arm.
4. same, except leg only.
C
1. Lateral Corticospinal tract
2. Motor, efferent
3. Spastic paralysis, pathological reflexes, increased deep tendon reflexes, of arm and leg, ipsilateral side.
4. same, except leg only.
D
1. Dorsal Column System
2. Sensory, afferent
3. Loss of fine touch and vibration sense, proprioception, arm and leg ipsilateral side.
4. same, except leg only
E
1. Anterior Spinothalamic Tract
2. sensory, afferent
3. loss of light touch (crude touch) in arm and leg contralateral (opposite) side of the body.
4. same, except leg only.
presnynaptic
a second chemical mediator released onto the ending of excitatory neuron causes a reduction in the size of the postsynaptic potential
direct inhibiotn
called psost inhibito, a chemical meditor related from inhbitory that causes hyperpolarization
identify laminas
b
top is
Lissauer's tract
so it is a b shape
the end is VI
middle of lamina
VII
center of lamina
X
a small fraction of corticospoian descend
0-3 percent
dorsal gray function as
afferent
somatotopic organization
dorsal column, gracile fasciculus, cuneate fasciculus,
lateral corticospinal tract
spinothalamic tract
gracile fasciculus
sacral and lumbar
cuneate fasciculus
thoraci and cervical
lateral corticospinal
cervical and lumbar
spinothalamic tracts
sacral and cerveical
refractory
decreased excitability
absolute refractory period
another action potential cannot be generated
relative refractory
conduction velocity is decresed and threshold incresed
Voltatge sensitive ion
specicalized protein molecules contain a pore tht act specific ion
Voltage sensitive
sufficient are opened an explosive all or non, depolarization of threshold
voltage sensitve K oopen
leads to hyperpolization
nonmyelinated are sensitive
na and K channel
Na accounts for depolarzation
K produces repolarization