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21 Cards in this Set

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3 Anti-Infectives
Antibiotics
Antivirals
Antifungals
*To treat known or suspected infection by particular organism, or prophylactically to prevent infection.
Anti-Infectives: General Precautions
Resistance - organism adapts; overuse increases risk of resistance.
Superinfection
Toxic to Neurologic and GI systems
High incidence of allergic / hypersensitive reactions
Chemicals that inhibit specific bacteria.
Antibiotics
Antibiotics: Bactericidal vs Bacteriostatic
Bactericidal - kills / destroys

Bacteriostatic - inhibits growth / cell division
9 Classes of Antibiotics
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Sulfonamides
Carbapenems
Tetracyclines
Fluoroquinolones
Aminoglycosides
Anti-mycobacterials
Other
Aminoglycosides
Bactericidal
Inhibits protein synthesis
"-mycin"
*gentamicin - IM, IV - tx Pseudomonas & wide variety gram-neg.
Side effects: Sinusitis, dizziness, rash, fever, nephro-toxicity
Carbapenems
Bactericidal
Inhibit cell membrane synthesis (via protein)
"-penem"
*ertapenem - IM, IV - tx community acquired oneumonia, complicated GU & intra-abdominal infections, acute pelvic infections, skin infections.
Side effects: H/A, dizziness, N/V, pseudomembranous colitis, rash, pain at injection site.
Cephalosporins
Bacteriostatic(depending on dose)
Interfere with cell wall building
1 - 4 generation
"cef-"
*cefaclor (2nd gen.)- PO - Tx respiratory, dermatological, urinary tract, and middle ear infections.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, rash, superinfection, bone marrow depression, pseudomembranous colitis
Fluoroquinolones
Gram-neg
Interfere with DNA for growth and reproduction.
"-floxacin"
*ciprofloxacin - PO, IV - tx respiratory, dermatological, urinary tract, ear, eye, bone, and joint infections; tx after exposure to anthrax & typhoid fever.
Side effects: H/A, dizziness, hypotension, N/V, diarrhea, fever, rash.
Penicillins
Natural Penicillins (G benzathine, potassium, procaine & V)
Extended Spectrum (amoxicillin)
Penicillin-resistant (nafcillin & oxacillin)

*amoxicillin - PO - tx of infection by susceptible bacteria, post-exposure prophylaxis for anthrax, tx Helicobacter in combination therapy.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, glossitis, stomatitis, bone marrow suppression, rash, fever, superinfection, lethargy
Sulfonamides
Blocks para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) needed for folic acid needed for DNA / multiplication.
"sulfa-"
*cotrimoxazole - PO - tx urinary tract infection, acute otitis media in children, chronic bronchitis, traveler's diarrhea, Pneumocystis carnii pneumonia.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, hepatocellular necrosis, hematuria, bone marrow suppression, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, rash, urticaria, photophobia, fever, chills
Tetracyclines
Inhibit protein synthesis
*tetracycline - PO, Topical - tx of infections caused by susceptible bacteria; acne, or when penicillin is contraindicated.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, glossitis, discoloring of teeth, bone marrow suppression, photosensitivity, superinfections, rash, local irritation with topical.
Anti-mycobacterials
*mycobacteria - group comtaining the pathogens that cause TB and leprosy

isoniazid - PO- interferes with lipid and nucleic acid synthesis - tx of TB
Side effects: peripheral neuropathies, N/V, hepatitis, bone marrow suppression, fever, gynecomastia, lupus syndrome.

dapsone - PO- tx of leprosy
Other Antibiotics: Ketolides
Block protein synthesis
*telithromycin - PO - tx community acquired pneumonia
Aside effects: H/A, dizziness, N/V, pseudomembranous colitis, superinfections
Other Antibiotics: Lincosamides
Inhibits protein synthesis
*clindamycin - PO, IM, IV, Topical - tx of serious infections caused by susceptible bacteria, including some anaerobes; useful is septicemia and chronic bone & joint infections.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis, bone marrow suppression, hypotension, cardiac arrest (IV), rash, pain (IM)
Other Antibiotics: Macrolides
Interfere with protein synthesis
Bactericidal & Bacteriostatic
"-thromycin"
*erythromycin - PO, IV - tx respiratory, dermatological, urinary tract, & GI infections caused by susceptible bacteria.
Side effects: abdominal cramping,vomiting, diarrhea, rash, superinfection, liver toxicity, pseudomembranous colitis, hearing loss
Other Antibiotics: Monobactam
Effective against gram-neg enterobacteria; no effect on gram-pos or anaerobics.
Disrupts cell wall synthesis
*aztreonam - IM, IV - tx lower respiratory, dermatological, urinary tract, intra-abdominal, & gynecological infections by gram-neg.
Side effects: N/V, diarrhea, rash, superinfection, anaphylaxis, local discomfort at injection site
Vancomycin
PO & IV
Interferes with cell wall synthesis
Tx Staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics (MRSA) & many gram-pos; C-diff take PO only
Side effects: Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, fever, chills, hypotension, erythema of neck and back (Red man syndrome - trunk of body)
5 inhibit protein synthesis
Aminoglycosides
Tetracyclines
Lincosamides
Macrolides
Ketolide
4 inhibit cell wall synthesis
Penicillins
Cephalosporins
Carbapenems
Monobactam
2 affect DNA
Fluoroquinolones
Sulfonamides (folic acid)