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45 Cards in this Set

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What are the anatomical limits of the oral cavity?
bordered anteriorly by lips and posteriorly by oropharynx.
What is the oral cavity lined with?
ORAL MUCOSA
continuous with skin at VERMILLION BORDER
continuous with GI tract at PHARYNX
What are the functions of the oral mucosa?
1. Protection
barrier to microorgs withstands mechanical trauma.
2. Sensation
receptors for taste, touch, temp, pain, salivation, and certain neuromuscular reflexes
3. Secretion
saliva and sebum (minor)
4. Thermal Regulation
insig. in human, BIG in animals
5. Speech
allows for modification of sound
6. Respiration
conduit for inhalation and exhalation
What are the differences between the oral mucosa and integument?
1. oral mucosa more deeply colored
2. moist surface
3. NO skin appendages
exception = Fordyce granules
4. Most of oral mucosa is smooth
exceptions = reugae, tongue papilla, linea alba, surface stippling
5. Localized variations in firmness and surface texture
What are the 4 major divisions of the oral cavity?
1. MASTICATORY MUCOSA
2. LINING MUCOSA
3. SPECIALIZED MUCOSA
4. MUCOSAL JUNCTIONS
MASTICATORY MUCOSA
-found on gingiva and hard palate
-thick ortho or para keratinized stratifeid SE
-over collagenized CT adhereing to PERIOSTEUM (mucoperiosteum)
LINING MUCOSA
-found on soft palate, ventral surface of tongue, floor of mouth, lowe part of alveolus, labial and buccal mucosa
-thin, nonkeratinized Stratifed SE
-except lips (ortho or para
-attached to bone or muscle w/ loose collagenous CT
-in some areas contain minor salivary glands, Fordyce granules, adipose tissure
SPECIALIZED MUCOSA
-thick keratinized or nonkeratinized stratified SE
-forms LINGUAL PAPILLAE
-CT richly vascularized with nerves and blood vessels
-posteriorly has minor salivary glands
What are two types of mucosal junctions?
1. MUCOCUTANEOUS JUNCTION
2. MUCOGINGIVAL JUNCTION
MUCOCUTANEOUS JUNCTION
-separates CIRCOCUMORAL SKIN and VERMILLION ZONE of lips
-lip epi. is thin and kertainized, contains prominent vascular RETE PEGS
-makes mucosa look red
-No skin appendages except SEBACEOUS GLANDS
MUCOGINGIVAL JUNCTION
separates ALVEOLAR MUCOSA from attached GINGIVA
ALVEOLAR MUCOSA
-nonkeratinized stratified SE
-loose lamina propria w/ high elastic fiber content
ATTACHED GINGIVA
-keratinized SSE
-lamina propria w/ many coarse collagen bundles
-attached to periosteum
What are the 5 major tissue components of oral cavity?
1. ORAL MUCOSA
2. RETE PEGS
3. LAMINA PROPRIA
4. LYNPHOID TISSUE
5. SUBMUCOSA
What are the 4 layers of oral mucosa (from superficial to deep)?
1. STRATUM CORNEUM
2. STRATUM GRANULOSUM
3. STRATUM SPINOSUM
4. STRATUM BASALE
STRATUM CORNEUM
-outermost layer
-orthokeratin or parakeratin
-not present in NONkeratinized
STRATUM GRANULOSUM
-thin layer of flattened cells
-contains keratohyaline granules
-in NONkeratinized granulosum not present
STRATUM INTERMEDIUM and STRATUM SUPERFICIALE
replaces granuloum and corneum respectively in NONKERATINIZED epithelium
STRATUM SPINOSUM
-thickes portion
-cells polyhedral
-have prominent desmosomal attachments around circumference
-contains LANGERHANS CELLS
STRATUM BASALE
-single layer of cuboidal or columnar cells
-deeply basophilic nuclei
-MITOTICALLY ACTIVE
-gives rise to cells that mature and exfoliate
-contains MELANOCYTES and MERKEL CELLS
Keratinocytes
all cells that form keratin
Nonkeratinocytes
in oral cavity
-Langerhans cells
-Melanocytes
-Merkel Cells
Inflammatory Cells
migrating leukocytes
-found w/in oral mucosa epi.
RETE PEGS
-conical projections
-superficial CT
-interdigitate w/ epithelial ridges
-HIGH SURFACE AREA
-resistant to shearing forces
-MANY nerves, capillaries, venules, and lymphatics to supply and drain epi.
LAMINA PROPRIA
-CT ssupportin epi. and separating it from submucosa and other structures
-very vascular
What are the 2 layers of the LAMINA PROPRIA?
1. PAPILLARY LAYER
2. RETICULAR LAYER
Papillary Layer
found among epithelial ridges
Reticular Layer
-many irregularly oriented collagen bundles
-more dense than papillary layer
-NO RETICULAR CT
LYMPHOID TISSUE
scattered lymphocytes and plasma cells in subepi. CT
SUBMUCOSA
-in lips, cheeks, and portions of palate
-less dense collagen bundles than in Lamina Propria
-many nerve and vascualr tissue
-minor salivary glands and fat
What are the 5 forms of specialized oral mucosa of the dorsum of the tongue?
1. TERMINAL SULCUS
2. FILIFORM PAPILLAE
3. FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE
4. FOLIATE PAPILLAE
5. CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE
TERMINAL SULCUS
-V-shaped groove
-separates body of tongue from tongue base
FILIFORM PAPILLAE
-many elongated structures at anterior of tongue
-thin CT core with overlying SSE
-tall spire of parakeratin
-NO TASTE BUDS
FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE
-dome shaped scattered among filiform papillae on anterior of tongue
-thin nonkeratinized SSE
-contains taste buds
-overlies thick CT core
-Partly responsible for SWEET and SALTY tastes
FOLIATE PAPILLAE
-posterolateral portions of tongue
-not prominent in humans
-prallel array of mucosal ridges
-taste buds found on ridge inclines
CIRCUMVALLATE PAPILLAE
-8-12
-LARGE
-abut anterior aspect of terminal sulcus
-encircled by deep groove
-glands of von Ebner empty into grooves
-superior aspect lined by keratinized SSE, lateral walls are nonkeratinized SSE
-many tsatebuds on lateral portion
-acid/sour tastes
TASTE BUDS
-chemoreceptors
-present on tongue, palate, pharynx, and epiglottis
-encompass entire thickness of epi.
-ovoid shape
-use circular taste pore to communicate with oral/pharyngeal cavity
What are the three cells that constitute the taste buds?
1. Basal Cell
2. Gustatory Cell
3. Sustentacular (supporting) cell
BASAL CELL
precursor cells
GUSTATORY CELL
-TASTE RECEPTOR
-lightly staining
SUSTENTACULAR CELL
-Supports Gustatory cells
-acts as taste receptor
-dark staining
Which two cells are associated with unmyelinated nerve endings?
Gustatory and sustentacular cells
-gustatory has stronger relationship with nerve endings
What do gustatory and sustentacular cells have?
apical microvilli protruding into taste pore
WALDEYER'S RING
Lymphoid tissue concentrated in palatine, lingual, and pharyngeal tonsils.
-Forms irregular ring surrounding entrance to oropharynx
What are the 10 age changes in the oral mucosa?
1. Thinner epithelium
2. Flattening of epithelial ridges
3. Smoother surface
4. Decreased number of filiform papillae
5. Decreased number of Langerhans cells
6. Vascular changes
-lingual varices
7. Increased number of Fordyce granules
8. Decreased cellularity/increased collagen content of LAMINA PROPRIA
9. Salivary gland atrophy
-alteration in taste
-xerostomia
-burning sensation
10. Loss of definition in VERMILLION BORDER