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63 Cards in this Set

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Question:
What structures are included in the female reproductive system?
Answer:
This system consists of two ovaries, two oviducts (uterine tubes), the uterus, the vagina, and the external genitalia
Question:
What is the function of the female reproductive system?
Answer:
Eating up sperm, and shooting out babies. This system functions to produce female gametes (oocytes) and to hold a fertilized oocyte during its complete development through embryonic and fetal stages until birth. It also produces sexual hormones that control organs of the reproductive system and influence other organs of the body.
Question:
What is menopause?
Answer:
This is a variable period during which the cyclic changes become irregular and eventually disappear. In the post period there is a slow involution of the reproductive system.
Question:
What are the 2 layers of the ovaries?
Answer:
The layers of this structure include the germinal epithelium and the tunica albuginea
Question:
What are the 2 regions of the ovaries?
Answer:
The cortical region and the medullary region
Question:
Where in the ovary do the ovarian follicles predominate?
Answer:
These predominate in the stroma of the cortical region
Question:
Around the end of the first month of embryonic life, a small population of what cells migrate from the yolk sac to the gonadal primordia?
Answer:
Primordial germ cells migrate to this area around the end of the first month of embryonic life.
Question:
At the end of the first month of embryonic life, the primordial germ cells divide and transform into what structure in the gonads?
Answer:
At the end of the first month of embryonic life, oogenia are transformed from these cells in the gonad.
Question:
Beginning in the third month of embryonic life, oogonia begin to enter what phase of the first meiotic division?
Does it complete this meiotic division?
What are these cells now called?
What cells surround these cells?
Answer:
Beginning in the third month of embryonic life, these enter prophase of the first meiotic division.
They do not complete this division and stop at the diplotene stage.
These cells are now called primary oocytes.
These flattened cells are called follicular cells (or granulosa cells)
Question:
By the seventh month of pregnancy, most oogonia have been transformed into primary oocytes. Many primary oocytes, however, are lost through what degenerative process?
Answer:
By the seventh month of pregnancy, atresia occurs to these structures.
Question:
What are the follicles called that are formed during fetal life which consists of a primary oocyte enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells?
Where are these follicles found in the ovary?
Answer:
Primordial follicles are formed during this time and are enveloped by these flattened cells.
The superficial layer of the cortical region is where they are found
Question:
What process begins in puberty and consists of modifications of the oocyte, of the granulosa cells, and of the stromal fibroblasts that surround these follicles?
Answer:
These modifications that begin in puberty is called follicular growth
Question:
What hormone is follicular growth stimulated by?
What gland is this hormone secreted by?
Answer:
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates this process.
Adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary gland)
Question:
During the first part of follicular growth (most rapid part), follicular cells divide by mitosis and form a single layer of cuboidal cells. What is the follicle called at this point?
Answer:
Unilaminar primary follicle is the name of the follicle during the first part of follicular growth when the cells divide by this process and forms a single layer of cuboidal cells.
Question:
After the unilaminar primary follicle is formed, the follicular cells continue to proliferate and form a stratified follicular epithelium (granulosa layer) whose cells communicate through gap junctions. What is the follicle called at this point?
Answer:
The follicle is called multilaminar primary follicle or preantral follicle when the follicular cells proliferate and form this type of layer whose cells communicate through gap junctions.
Question:
What is the thick amorphous layer composed of several glycoproteins and is secreted and surrounds the oocyte right after the preantral follicle is formed?
Answer:
Zone pellucida is this thick amorphous layer composed of glycoproteins and is secreted and surrounds the oocyte right after this follicle is formed.
Question:
As the follicles grow (due mainly to the increase in size and number of granulosa cells), they move to deeper areas of the cortical region. Liquid (liquor folliculi) begins to accumulate between the follicular cells. What is the larger cavity that is formed when the granulosa cells reorganize themselves in the small spaces that contain the fluid?
What is the follicle called at this point?
Answer:
Antrum is the larger cavity formed from the reorganization of these cells.
The follicles are now called secondary or antral follicles.
Question:
What is the name of the group of granulosa cells that contains the oocyte and forms a small hillock in the granulosa layer during the reorganization of the cells to form the antrum?
Answer:
Cumulus oophorus is the group of granulosa cells forming a small hillock in the granulosa layer during this time.
Question:
What is formed from the granulosa cells that are concentrated around the oocyte and accompanies the oocyte when it leaves the ovary?
Answer:
Corona radiata is formed from the grouping of the granulosa cells near this and accompanies it when it leaves the ovary.
Question:
While modifications are taking place in the oocyte and granulosa layer, what layer is formed from the differentiation of the fibroblasts of the stroma immediately around the follicle?
What 2 layers does this layer subsequently differentiate into?
Answer:
Theca folliculi is formed from the differentiation of these around the follicle during the time when modifications are taking place in the oocyte and granulosa layer.
Theca internal and theca externa are the subsequent layers.
Question:
What steroid hormone do the cells of the theca interna synthesize?
What is the hormone formed from the above hormone when the enzyme aromatase is synthesized in the granulosa layer under the influence of FSH?
Answer:
Androstenedione is synthesized by this layer around the follicle.
Estrogen is converted from androstenedione by this enzyme in the granulosa layer and is returned to the stroma, enters the blood vessels, and is distributed throughout the body.
Question:
What is the name of the large mature follicle that consists of a thinner granulosa layer, a thick theca layer, and is dominantly formed from each menstrual cycle and may ovulate?
Answer:
The graafian follicle is formed from each cycle and has the capability to ovulate.
Question:
How long is the growth process from primordial to mature (graafian) follicle?
Answer:
This process takes 90 days.
Question:
What process do most ovarian follicles undergo and is characterized by cessation of mitosis in the granulosa cells, detachment of granulosa cells from the basal lamina, and death of the oocyte and granulosa?
Answer:
Follicular atresia is the process in which most ovarian follicles undergo and has these characteristics.
Question:
At what point in life does atresia greatly magnify? Why?
Answer:
This is magnified during birth because maternal hormone cease. It also is magnified during puberty and pregnancy because this is the time when hormonal modifications take place.
Question:
What occurs when part of the wall of the mature follicle ruptures and the oocyte is liberated and is caught by the dilated extremity of the oviduct?
Answer:
This occurs during ovulation
Question:
Around what day of the menstrual cycle does ovulation occur?
Answer:
This occurs approximately at the middle of the menstrual cycle (day 14 of the 28 day cycle)
Question:
In the human, usually only one oocyte is liberated by the ovary during each cycle. What is the name of the cycle when no oocyte is ovulated?
Answer:
Anovulatory cycle describes this process.
Question:
What hormone stimulates ovulation?
What gland is this hormone secreted by?
What is this hormone secreted in response to?
Answer:
This is stimulated by luteinizing hormone (LH)
Anterior pituitary gland
high levels of circulating estrogen produced by the growing follicles
Question:
What occurs within minutes after the increase in blood LH?
Answer:
At this time, there is an increase in blood flow through the ovary, and plasma proteins leak through capillaries and postcapillary venules, resulting in edema.
Question:
What substances are released immediately after the increase in blood LH during ovulation?
Answer:
prostaglandins, histamine, vasopressin, and collagenase are locally released due to this.
Question:
What things cause the rupture of the outer follicular wall and ovulation?
Answer:
This is caused by:
- Collagen degradation of the tunica albuginea, ischemia, and the death of some cells causing the wall of the follicle becomes weak
- Increase in pressure of the follicular fluid
- Possibly the contraction of contractile cells that surround the follicle
Question:
What is the name of the area on the surface of the follicle in which blood flow ceases (resulting in a local change in color and translucence of the follicular wall) and indicates impending ovulation?
Answer:
This is indicated by the appearance of a stigma on the surface of the follicle.
Question:
At what point is the first meiotic division completed (until this moment the oocyte was in prophase I of meiosis, initiated during fetal life)?
Answer:
This is completed just before ovulation
Question:
After the completion of the first meiotic division, the chromosomes are equally divided between the daughter cells, but one of the secondary oocytes retains almost all of the cytoplasm. What is the name of the very small cell containing a small nucleus and a minimal amount of cytoplasm?
Answer:
First polar body is formed along after this process is completed.
Question:
What does the nucleus of the oocyte undergo immediately after the expulsion of the first polar body?
Does it complete the process? If not, at what stage does it stop at?
Answer:
At this time, the second meiotic division starts, but stops at metaphase.
Question:
What happens to the first polar body after the rupture of the follicular wall?
Answer:
It leaves the ovary at this time and enters the open extremity of the uterine tube where the oocyte may be fertilized.
Question:
What happens if the oocyte is not fertilized within the first 24 hours after ovulation?
Answer:
Oocyte will degenerate if this doesn’t occur.
Question:
What is the name of the temporary endocrine gland that becomes embedded within the cortical region right after ovulation?
This gland is formed from the reorganization of which cells?
Answer:
Corpus luteum
Granulosa cells and the cells of the theca interna of the ovulated follicle
Question:
What cells make up the majority (about 80%) of the parenchyma of the corpus luteum?
What are they called at this point?
What do they secrete?
Answer:
Granulosa cells
Granulosa lutein cells
steroids
Question:
Which cells are smaller than the granulosa lutein cells but also contribute to the formation of the corpus luteum?
What do these cells give rise to?
Answer:
Theca interna cells
Theca lutein cells
Question:
What hormone stimulates the reorganization of the ovulated follicle and the development of the corpus luteum before ovulation?
Answer:
These are under the control of LH
Question:
What hormones are secreted by the corpus luteum?
Answer:
It releases progesterone and estrogen
Question:
What is the shedding of part of the uterine mucosa called if pregnancy does not occur?
This is due to the decreased secretion of what hormone?
Estrogen also inhibits what hormone from the anterior pituitary in this case?
Answer:
Menstruation
Progesterone is decreased
This hormone from the corpus luteum inhibits FSH from the anterior pituitary gland.
Question:
What stimulates the beginning of the next menstrual cycle?
Answer:
- Concentration of blood steroids decrease due to the degeneration of the corpus luteum
- FSH is liberated, stimulating the growth of another group of follicles
Question:
What is the name of the corpus luteum that lasts for only part of a menstrual cycle?
Answer:
Corpus luteum of menstruation
Question:
What is the regressed form of the corpus luteum in which fibroblasts invade the area and produce a scar of dense connective tissue?
Answer:
Corpus albicans
Question:
If pregnancy occurs, what hormone is secreted from the trophoblastic cells of the implanting embryo?
What does it do?
What other hormone does it stimulate in order to maintain the uterine mucosa throughout pregnancy?
Answer:
Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Rescues corpus luteum from degeneration
Progesterone
Question:
What is the name of the corpus luteum if pregnancy occurs?
Answer:
Corpus luteum of pregnancy
Question:
Theca interna cells frequently persist in isolation or in small groups throughout the cortical stroma. What are these cells called?
What do they secrete?
What hormone is this stimulated by?
Answer:
Interstitial cells
Steroids
LH
Question:
What are the two muscular tubes leading from the ovaries into the uterus?
Answer:
Fallopian tubes (oviduct)
Question:
What are the three layers of the oviduct wall?
Answer:
1. mucosa
2. thick muscularis composed of smooth muscle
a.inner circular or spiral layer
b.outer longitudinal layer
3. serosa composed of visceral peritoneum
Question:
What is the role of the cilia on the epithelial cell of the mucosa?
Answer:
It beats toward the uterus and favors the transport of the ovulated oocyte into the tube.
Question:
What serves as a stimulus for the oocyte to complete the second meiotic division? (Only at this moment does the primary oocyte transform into a secondary oocyte)
What is the oocyte called at this point?
Answer:
This division is stimulated by fertilization.
zygote
Question:
What structures are included in the female external genitalia?
Answer:
Clitoris, labia minora, labia majora, and some glands that open into the vestibulum
Question:
What is the space enclosed by the labia minora?
Answer:
Vestibulum
Question:
What glands are situated on either side of the vestibulum and are homologous to the bulbourethral glands in the male?
Answer:
glandulae vestibulares majores (glands of Bartholin)
Question:
What do the glands of Bartholin secrete?
Answer:
mucus
Question:
What is homologous to the penis in embryonic origin and histological structure and is formed by two erectile bodies ending in a rudimentary glans clitoridis and a prepuce.
Answer:
Clitoris
Question:
What folds of skin have a core of spongy connective tissue permeated by elastic fibers and is covered with keratinized SSE?
Answer:
Labia minora
Question:
What glands are present on the inner and outer surfaces of the labia minora?
Answer:
Sebaceous and sweat glands
Question:
What folds of skin contain a large quantity of adipose tissue and a thin layer of smooth muscle?
Answer:
Labia majora
Question:
What is present on the external surface of the labia majora?
Answer:
Skin and coarse curly hair