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20 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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2 ways to get rid of N
1. transamination
2. deamination
2 ways to get rid of N
1. transamination
2. deamination
Why do we need amino acids?
(5 reasons)
1. Protein synthesis
2. Synthesis of important nitrogenous compounds
3. Use of carbon skeletons for fuel
4. Use of carbon skeletons to make glucose and ketone bodies
5. Use of carbon requires excretion of amino nitrogen
4 Nitrogen Resevoir Compounds
1. ammonia
2. Glu
3. Gln
4. Urea
What are the two long term storage forms of energy in the body?
What can they produce?
Where do they come from?
* Protein and Fat
* FA only produces acetyl CoA not glucose
* AA can form new glucose and ketone bodies
* In fast skeletal muscle degraded to make glucose
What two amino acids are not glucogenic? Are only ketogenic?
1. Leucine
2. Lycine
What is the zymogen of pepsin and how is it activated?
What is pepsin's key role?
-H+, Pepsin
-First protease
What is the zymogen of trypsin and how is it activated?
What is trypsin's key role?
-Activates other zymogens
Where is trypsin produced and secreted?
Where does trypsin cleave?
-produced in the pancreas and secreted into the intestines
Where is pepsin produced and secreted?
Where does pepsin cleave?
-produced and secreted by chief cells of the stomach
How are amino acids absorbed?
-Absorbed in gut and kidney by a Na+ linked carrier that exist in the brush border.
-Brings in one molecule of aa and Na+.
-Limited number of carriers
-Glutathione-based transport (gamma-gultamate)
What are the 11 nonessential amino acids?
-serine -glutamate
-glycine -glutamine
-cysteine -proline
-alanine -arginine
-tyrosine(male from essential aa phenylalanine
What are the 10 esential amino acids?
-lysine -tryptophan
-isoleucine -phenylalanine
-leucine -methionine
-threonine -histidine
-valine -arginine(only in babies)
PVT Tim Hall
What happens if your body lacks essential amino acids?
Cells will take apart structural proteins from the muscle to get the missing aa. This causes muscle degradation as the body scavenges.
Alpha-ketoglutarate can be formed by what amino acids?
*Glutamine - converted by glutaminase to glutamate w/release of ammonia
*Proline - oxidized so that ring opens to form glutamate
*Arginine - cleaved by arginase in liver to form urea and ornithine that can be TA'd to glutamate semialdehyde and oxidized to glutamate
*Histidine - converted to FIGLU, formimino group transferred to FH4 to form glutamate
*Glutamate - deaminiated by glutamate dehydrogenase or transaminated to form alpha-ketoglutarate
What four amino acids form succinyl CoA?
Four amino acids are converted to propionyl Co A, which is carboxylated in biotin-requiring reaction to form methylmalonyl CoA, which is rearranged to form succinyl CoA requiring B12
*Threonine - converted by dehydratase to NH4+ and alpha-ketobutyrate, which is oxidatively decarboxylated to propionyl CoA
*Methionine - and ATP form SAM, donates a methyl group and forms homocysteine, that is reconverted to methionine by FH4-C1 via B12, reacts w/serine to form cystathionine, cleave to form cysteine, NH4+, and alpha-ketobytyrate that converts to propionyl CoA
*Valine - converted via propionyl Co A and methylmalonyl CoA
*Isoleucine - forms propionyl CoA after releasing 2 C as acetyl CoA
What 3 amino acids form fumarate?
*Phenylalanine is converted to tyrosine by phenylalanine hydroxylase requiring BH4, O2
*Tyrosine, obtained from diet or hyoxylation of phenylalanine, is converted to homogentisate, whose ring is opened and cleaved, forming fumarate and acetoacetate
*Aspartate - converted to fumarate via urea cycle and purine nucleotide cycle
What 2 amino acids for oxaloacetate?
*Aspartate - transaminated to form oxaloacetate
*Asparagine - loses ammonia, forming aspartate in a reaction catalyzed by asparaginase
What amino acids can be converted to acetyl CoA?
4 form acetyl CoA
lysine, threonine, isoleucine, and tryptophan
1 is degraded to form acetyl CoA
What amino acids can be converted to acetoacetate?
2 form acetoacetate
phenylalanine and tyrosine
1 is degraded to form acetoacetate