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44 Cards in this Set

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AA catabolism produces what that is toxic?
Ammonia
What is positive nitrogen balance?
When you take in more nitrogen than excreted...children and pregenant women are commonly in positive nitrogen metabolism
What is negative nitrogen balance?
Taking in less amino acids than you are excreting. Happens in malnutrition or catabolic stress (i.e. infection)
What is a hypercatabolic state?
A state of increased fuel usage. Negative nitrogen balance. Seen in trauam, injury and infection.
Which hormone is usually elevated in a hypercatobolic state?
Coritsol
List the essential amino acids:
Phenylalanine
Valine
Tryptophan
Theronine
Isolucine
Methionine
Histadine
Arginine
Leucine
Lysine
Where do we get out essenital amino acids from?
Dietary and protien turnover (breakdown)
Tyrosine is made from?
Phenylalanine
Cystine synthesis requires?
Methionie
How are amino acids used in a fed state?
AA's will be used to make proteins the extras are broken down to make energy or fat
How are amino acids used in a fasted state?
Skeletal muscle protein will be broken down to use in gluconeogenesis or energy. Some will be used to synthesize needed proteins.
What is a glucogenic amino acid?
Degraded to pyruvate or TCA cycle intermediates
What is a ketogenic amino acid?
Degraded to acetyl CoA or acetoacetate
How does insulin effect amino acid metabolism?
promotes AA uptake and protein synthesis
How does cortisol effect amino acid metabolism?
promotes gluconeogensis thus AA will be used as precursurs
How does glucagon effect AA metabolism?
Stimulate AA uptake by liver
What is the role of skeletal muscle in AA metabolism in fasted state?
Skeletal muscle proteins will break down for AA to use as energy
What is deamination?
Removing the NH3 group off an amino acid resulting in free ammonia group. Glutamate DH is an example of a deamination enzyme.
What is transamination?
Transamination is the transfer of NH3 group to something else. Example: Alpha-ketoglutarate to glutamate
What are the two ways of removing nitrogen from AA?
Transaminiation and deamination
What is the importance of alpha-ketoglutarate?
Important in tranaminating AA to glutamate. alpha-keto is produced from transamination.
Aminotransferases/transaminases require what as a cofactor?
PLP (Pyridoxal phosphate) Vitamin B6
Why is it important that transaminanes are reversible?
So alpha-ketoglutarate can be regenerated
What is the product of ALT?
Pyruvate ---ALT ---> Alanine
What is the product of AST?
OAA ---AST ---> Aspartate
What is the importance of AST and ALT in diagnosing liver disease?
Elevated serum levels of AST and ALT mean liver damage
Why are glutamate, glutamine, and alanine important?
They transport NH3 to liver so they can be excreted in the urea cycle.
Where does the urea cycle occur?
Liver
Which enzymes are involved with urea cycle?
CPS1 and OTC
Where do the first two steps of the urea cycle occur in the cell?
Mitochondria
Which amino acid is produce by the urea cycle?
Arginine
Urea formation requires energy and is irreversible, true or false?
True
What is the rate imiting step in the urea cycle?
CPS1 is the rate limiting step
How is the urea cycle regulated?
Mostly substrate avalibiility (feed forward) regulated
What is important about NAG?
CPS1 is stimulated by NAG which is produced from acetyl CoA + glutamate
Where does urea go after it is synthesized?
Into the blood stream to be excreted by kidneys
What is BUN?
Blood urea nitrogen
Predict the level of BUN in kidney failure
Higher
Predict the level of BUN in liver disease
Lower
Predict the level of BUN when you eat a lot of protein
Higher
Predict the level of BUN when you are over hydrated
Lower
Predict the level of BUN in malnutrition
Inconclusive
What is hyperammonemia?
Increase blood levels of ammonia. Can be herditary or aquired.
How can hyperammonemia be caused by liver disease?
Liver damage = urea cycle inparied