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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
2 diseases caused by iodine deficiency
Goiter and Cretinism
Before aborption in Small Intestine, what chemical change does iodine endure?
reduction to iodide
What is the percentage breakdown of what happens to iodine in the human body.
20% thyroid absorption
77% kidney absorption
3% loss to feces
What are the endemic iodine deficiency regions of the world?
mountainous regions - alps, Hims, Andes
great arc of the the Hims - wet Paistan, india, nepal, n thailand, vietnam, indo
Goiter belt in US from Michigan to Maine
Where are the areas of excess iodine?
Chile, central Africa
What is the symbol of the endocrine surgeon?
the rhinocerous
Factors, other than iodine deficiency, that cause goiter?
(Goitrogens)
sulfurated organic chems
flavonoids
DDT
Soyabean
Cabbage
Cassava (contains thiocyanates)

(He's not expecting us to know these)
Iodine is a goitrogen? How's that?
excessive intake may cause goiters
endemic area for goiter reported on coast of Hokkaido in Northern japan
Diets contained huge amounts of seaweed, excretion of iodine in urine exceeded 20 mg/day
Selenium deficiency- how does it cuase goiters?
lack of enzyme glutathione peroxidase (which contains selenium)
Is there a pathologic difference b/w endemic goiters and ordinary nodular goiters or sporadic goiters?
no

In fact, you should shoot a pathologist who says there is a difference.
Signs and symptoms of Neurologic Endemic Cretinism
Predominantly neuromotor defects, including:
Strabismus
Deaf-mutism
Disorders of gait & coordination
Goiter, usually present
Three characteristic features are: severe mental deficiency with squint, deaf-mutism, motor spasticity with characteristic disorders of arms and legs
Deafness, a striking feature, complete in 50% of pts
Neuropathology suggest that period from ____weeks until 20-30 weeks, period when damage occurs

Development of brain occurs between 12-18 weeks
12-14
Iodine repletion must occur by ? months of pregnancy to prevent cretinism
3
Signs and symps of neurologic cretinism
Gross mental retardation
Varying degrees of shortness of stature
Deaf mutism
Spasticity
Goiters
As many as 1/10th of populations with very severe iodine deficiency may be affected
What are Features of a Myxedematous Cretin
Goiter, usually absent, thyroid gland may not be palpable
Less severe mental retardation than neurologic cretin
Features of extremely severe hypothyroidism, present in early life
Severe growth retardation with incomplete maturation of features, mandibular atrophy
Puffy features with thickened dry skin, dry & rare hair, eyelashes, eyebrows
Delayed sexual maturation
a meta-analysis of 19 studies on neuromotor & cognitive functions in conditions of moderate to severe iodine deficiency, resulted in loss of ____ IQ points
13.5
Complications of Iodine Repletion
There are two major complications in the replenishment of iodine in any community and that is the effects of overcompensation:
1. Iodine-induced hyperthyroidism
2. Autoimmune thyroiditis