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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of fat in foods
essential FAs, fat soluable vitamins, satiety, taste, texture
Functions of fat in body
Regulatory nutrient (some hormones),
structural (subcutaneous fat as insulation),
membrane structure (right texture, fluidity)
Another name for fat tissue
In food fat and body fat. 3C backbone (glycerol) and 3 fatty acid chains
Saturated fat
Full of hydrogen; have even number of carbons; solid at room temperature
Melting point of fat
Depends on degree of saturation and length of chain
Most common saturated fats
Palmitic acid (16C)
Stearic acid (18C)
Unsaturated FA
Missing Hs; C=C exists; the most C=C an unsat fat can have is 6
Only has one C=C
Polyunsaturated (PUFA)
Has 2 or more C=C
Most common unsat fats
Oleic acid (18:1)
Linoleic acid (18:2)
Linolenic acid (18:3)
Linoleic (W6)
Linolenic (W3)
Conjugated bond
Two C=Cs cannot occur right next to each other; the need at least one C-C between them.
Sat fat recs

Beef, dairy, tropical oils, hydrogenated products
Monounsat fat recs

Peanut, olive, canola oils, avocado -- "Heart healthy fat"
Animal fats
Saturated, solid at room temp, low EFA, except fish, chicken, eggs
Vegetable fats
Unsaturated, liquid at room temp, high EFA, except tropical oils (palm, coconut)
Not essential; glycerol backbone w/ 2 FAs and phosphate substance; cell membrane componenet; emulsifier; lipoprotein.
Not essential; only in animal products; cell membranes; precursor to bile acids, sex hormomes, vit D; transported in lipoproteins
Fat digestion
Must be emulsified by bile; digestion begins in SI; lipoprotein chylomicron transports fat around body once absorbed
Pros of hydrogenated oils
Cheaper, longer shelf life
Cons of hydrogenated oils
Trans fats produced, loss of EFA
Fat replacers
Replace fat properties of texture and flavor
Pro - Simplesse
CHO - Oats, gums, starch
Fat - Mono, diglycerides
Olestra (sucrose polyester)
C,H,O,& N; made of amino acids (20 kinds; 9 essential); aas connected by peptide bonds

aa order determines pro structure; pro structure determines function
Functions of protein
Structure (bone, connective tissue);
Regulatory (hormones, immune system, enzymes, fluid balance, transport proteins);
Energy (no storage form in body)
EPA of Protein
.8 g/kg body weight
Cells with fast turnover rates
Intestine, blood, immune
Cells with medium turnover rates
Muscle, skin
Cells with slow turnover rates
Symptoms of protein deficiency
Growth stunting,
Mental retardation,
Fatty liver,
Dec. nutrient abs.
When an increase of protein requirements is needed
Protein quality
Percent of protein eaten that is utilized; digestability.
Animal pros are most easily digested - "complete"
Legumes, grains, vegetables - "incomplete"
Limiting aa
The eaa in a food pro. lowest in amt. relative to need. Can limit pro synthesis
Grains: limited in lysine
Legumes: limited in methionine
Mutual supplementation
Combines two incomplete pro sources (complementary pros each with a limiting aa) to create a higher quality plant based pro.
Not an issue with animal products
Measuring pro quality
PDCAAS; score of 0-100
PER; how well a pro supports weight gain (in growing rats)
Reasons for vegetarian diets
Religious beliefs, ethical considerations, resource consumption, less expensive, food aversions, health concerns
Health benefits of vegetarian diets
Low fat, low/no cholesterol, high fiber, nutrient dense
Essential, organic, non-kcal compounds needed in small amounts
Forms of vitamins
Vitamins or provitamins (precursors that are converted into active vit)
Classifications of vitamins
Fat soluable (ADEK)
Water soluable (Bs&C)
Characteristics of fat soluable vitamins
Dissolve in lipids; require bile for abs; stored in tissue; may be toxic in excess; deficiency occurs with inadequate intake, certain diseases, excess laxative use or olestra
Vitamin A forms in foods
Retinol (animal products)
Beta-carotine (Precursor, plant products)
Functions of vit A
Prevent night blindness, maintain cornea health, formation of epithelial cells, bone and tooth growth, hormones, immunity, anti-oxidant
Vit A deficiency
Night blindness, keratinization (cloudy cornea), xerophthalmia, skin and lung infections, growth stunting
Vit A toxicity
(NOT B-carotene) Birth defects, liver disease
Vit A pharmacology
Accutane, Retin-A (acne treatment)
Food sources of vit A
Retinol: liver, milk, eggs, butter
Beta-carotene: carrots, sweet potatoes, cantalope
1000 ug
Vitamin D
Sunshine vitamin: made in skin from cholesterol
Functions of vit D
Bone mineralization: raises blood levels of Ca and Phosphorus, acts like hormone
Vit D deficiency
Rickets in kids (bowed legs)
Osteomalacia in adults (bone softening)
Vit D toxicity
Most of all vitamins; Ca deposits in soft tissues
Food sources of Vit D
Fortified milk, seafood, sun
5-10 ug
Vitamin E
Tocopherols -- important for development
Functions of vit E
Antioxidant (to protect PUFAS), nerve development
Vit E deficiency
RBC hemolysis, anemia
Vit E toxicity
Food sources of vit E
Veg. oils, nuts, whole grains (germ), soybeans, fruit/veggies, meat, fish, eggs
15 mg
Vit K
Koagulation (clotting)
Functions of Vit K
Synthesis of pro involved in blood clotting, bone formations
Deficiency of vit K
Newborns sterile gut, given K injection; adults rare (antibiotic use, drugs that block K action)
Food sources of vit K
GI bacteria, milk, green leafys, eggs, liver
90-120 ug
Characteristics of water soluable vitamins
Dissolve in water, easily absorbed and excreted, not stored excessively in tissues, seldom reach toxic levels, coenzymes
Vitamin C
Ascorbic acid
Functions of vit C
Collagen syn, antioxidant, supports immune system, inc iron abs
Vit C deficiency
Scurvy: anemia, delayed wound healing, bleeding gums, painful joints, fragile bones
Food sources of vit C
Citrus fruits, cantalope, strawberries, tomatoes, potatoes, brocculi, peppers
75-90 mg (inc +35mg for smokers)
Vitamin B1
Functions of vit B1
coenz in energy metab (releases energy from carbs, pro, fat), nervous system function
Vit B1 deficiency
Diet of polished (refined) rice, fish.
Beri-beri: heart problems, muscle wasting, difficulty walking, mental confusion
Food sources of vit B1
Pork, whole grains, legumes, enriched grains
Vit B1 RDA
1.1-1.2 mg
Vitamin B2
Functions of vit B2
Coenz in energy metab, normal vision and skin health
Vit B2 deficiency
Ariboflavinosis: cracks in the corners of the mouth, magenta tongue, hypersensitivity to light
Food sources of vit B2
Milk, meat, whole grains, enriched bread/cereals (falls apart in light)
Vit B2 RDA
1.1-1.3 mg
Vitamin B3
Functions of vit B3
Coenz for energy metab, fat production (healthy skin, nervous system)
Vit B3 deficiency
Diet of grits (corn) and salt pork (related to Trp)
Pellagra: dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, death (4 D's)
Vit B3 toxicity
Flushing (vasodialator)
Vit B3 pharmacology
Blood lipid lowering
Food sources of vit B3
Meat, fish, enriched grains
Vit B3 RDA
14-16 mg
Vitamin B6
Functions of vit B6
Coenz energy metab, formation of RBCs
Vit B6 deficiency
Anemia, dermatitis, muscle twitching, convulsions
Food sources of vit B6
Leafy greens, pro foods, fruits, whole grains
Vit B6 RDA
1.3 mg
Functions of folate
Coenz in cell development, prevention of neural tube defects
Folate deficiency
Macrocytic anemia, mental confusion
Food sources of folate
Leafy greens, enriched grains, liver, legumes, orange juice
Folate RDA
400 ug
Vitamin B12
Functions of vit B12
Conez in new cell syn, maintains nerve cells
Vit B12 deficiency
Rare (stored in liver)
Pernicious anemia, fatigue to paralysis.
Requires intrinsic factor for abs
Food sources of vit B12
ANIMAL products only
Vit B12 RDA
2.4 ug
Background of minerals
Elements other than C,H,O,N
5-6% body wt
All are essential
Structure and regulation
NOT source of energy
Originate in soil or water
2 categories of minerals
Major (macro) >.01% of body wt
Trace (micro) <.01% of body wt
Bioavailability (of minerals)
The proportion or % of nutrient (or mineral) available

Minerals: 5-60%
Factors that affect bioavailability
Growth, pregnancy, aging, medication, fiber, form of mineral in food
Functions of Ca
99% in bones and teeth, blood clotting process, muscle/nerve function
Ca deficiency
Levels stay the same in the blood - under homeostatic control
Ca homeostasis
Kidney involved in mineral balance; bone, intestine
1000 mg adults
Functions of Fe
O2 transport, energy metabolism
Fe deficiency
Anemia "sick blood"; low amt of hemoglobin in blood; poor O2 = dec. RBCs; fatigue, smooth tongue
Ways that the body keep Fe
Change in Fe producing/storage pro, store Fe to be used as you build RBCs
Abs/utilization of Fe
With poor Fe status, abs inc.
Forms of Fe in foods
Heme Fe; non-heme Fe
Heme Fe
Meats: blood contains heme because all animal cells contain hemoglobin
1/2 of all Fe in meat
Ba ~20-30%
Non-heme Fe
All plants and 1/2 animal products
Ba ~5-20%
RDA of Fe
Males: 8 mg
Females: 18 mg
Pregnant women: 27 mg (supplement)
Food sources of Fe
Heme: liver, meats
Non-heme: plants, leafy greens, legumes, grains, whole/refined "enriched"