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109 Cards in this Set

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what are the biggest sources of cross contamination?
sponges
what is an extremely contaminated site on the body?
your mouth
who regulates Current Good Manufacturing Practices in Manufacturing, Packaging or Holding Human Foods?
FDA
Current Good Manufacturing Practices are...
not all inclusive
What GMP strategies prevent the adulteration of food?
Food that gets in congress can neither be Adultered or Prepared, packed of help under insanitary conditions that may be unsafe to ones health
Adultered is defined as..
manufactured under conditions that is unfit for food
To prevent adulteration:
maintain products:
-clean environment
-fit to be consumed (safe)
-nothing harmful will get in food
What are examples of bad processing?
1) dead animals in plants
2) chewing tobacco
3) smoking
4) lack of hair net
What are effects of failure to meet GMPs?
-Physical Contaminants
-Microbial Contaminants
-Financial Costs
What are examples of Financial costs from failing to meet GMPs
-lost revenue
-law suits
-increased liability costs from insurance CO.
-lost worker time
What are the issues addressed in CRF (GMPs)
-personal
-plants & grounds
-sanitary operations
-sanitary facilities and controls
-equipment and utensils
-process and controls
what is CFR?
code of federal regulation for GMPs
What are the regulations of Salmonella/shigella/ E.coli 0157:H7/ Heptatitis under the US Model Food Code?
need a dr's note saying the illness is gone and the employee is clear to work before they can come back into the facilities
Identify CFR's regulation of Personal: Disease Control?
individuals w/ visible illness, open lesions, boils, sores, infected wounds, or any abnormal sources of microbial contamination.. SHALL be excluded from operations (working w/foods, food-contact surfaces or food packing materials) UNTIL condition is corrected
define fever
high temp--> WBC (white blood cells) release antibodies that detect bacteria and raise body temp to work more effectively and fight baceria
-->employee should go home and rest
When is an employee considered sick?
symptoms include:
fever, vomiting, diarrhea, heavy bleeding, jaundice, sore throat (strep), naseua

**any GI unpsets
What are way to maintain personnel cleanliness?
wearing outer garments-hair nets, beard nets, aprons, lab coats, etc
-make sure personal hygiene is good
-NO BUTTONS on clothing (snaps preferred)
What can be used to differentiate between work areas with regards to clothing?
can use different color lab coats for different areas
-ex) raw section of factory vs cooked food
Describe a typical factory uniform
-should have no pockets above the bend line
-No BUTTONS
-Company should control uniforms
-close toed shoes
Why should companies control employee uniforms?
-prevents outside contamination
-guarantees uniforms will be cleaned properly
-ensure it comes back
describe how to properly wear gloves.
-use a new pair everytime you switch tasks
-wash hands then put them on
-non-latex necessary
-throw out afterwards
-change frequently
-make sure color contrasts the material your working with
-want them intact, clean, sanitary
Proper Jewelry practice: when it needs to be removed
when they become physical hazards and places where bacteria could be found
-remove all that is possible
*exceptions depend on the company (i.e. simple band for ring and medic alert bracelet or necklace)
Hand-washing practices
TO DO when: switching tasks, after using bathroom, after coughing, sneezing, touching mouth, after cleaning (want to remove chemicals), before you start work, before going to bathroom, after eating
What are gloves not a substitute for?
Washing your hands
Describe how hair should be
controlled with head bands, hairnets, caps, beard nets
Describe GMP's Eating and Drinking regulation
prohibited from processing/handling areas
** NO chewing gum or tobacco
*No drinking- glass could shatter/cups could fall in processing area
Describe tobacco regulation
No chewing or smoking allowed in plants-should have a minimum distance in place when using these products
Describe why cigs are bad
-butts may have mites in the filters
-if someone smokes too close to the plant
-they could be brought in on the bottom of shoes
-mice can carry in the cig butts
*mouth bacteria
*ashes could get into the product
what should you do if wearing topical medications on hands?
put bandages over it and wear gloves
What is the process in controlling pests?
1) prohibit pests from getting into facility (use auto doors, chemical barriers, air curtains, screens/windows, look out for holes)
2) Keep facility clean (no food or H2O for them to hide in)
3) Hire pest control to get ride of them
What happens when a fly lands on your food?
1)soften it up by vomiting on it
2) stamp vomit in until its liquid (usually stamping in a few germs)
3) after runny, they suck it all back up again (dropping excrement on it at the same time)
how should grounds be maintained?
minimal clutter, proper waste disposal, grounds mowed, minimize seepage/pooled h2o, and maintained roadways
who enforces good manufacturing practices?
FDA*
What is proper ventilation/airflow technique for plants
-change air circulation to take out condensation (preventing mold and microbial growth)
-make sure open VATS are not underneath
-Use HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filters
What is proper light placement?
put lights far away from doors but still shining in entrance
*lights attract bugs
potable
meets federal requirements for h2o that is okay to drink
Describe how to clean drains
by pouring sanitizer down-use scrubber w/ plastic trash bag surrounding it as it is brought back to surface-
where do you want drains in plants
in low point of room-not near food processing
how do you manage thermostats?
want to calibrate regularly
**only as good as the last time calibrated
how do you calibrate a thermostat?
2 thermostats to take temp
-1 calibrated
-1 compared to calibrated thermostate
Process control- Temp Maintenance: where do you want to keep a thermostat?
next to fluid-bc it is equilibrated to room temp
How should bathrooms be stocked?
hot and cold running water, soap (for washing and cleaning) some sort of drying, toilet paper and trash disposal
how should proper equipment be designed?
clean-able, non porous, corrosion resistant (bc of high acid foods)/free of rust, smooth joints to prevent build-up and CIP (clean in place)
how should equipment be maintained?
-lab equipment should be working and calibrated
-coolers and freezers should have up to date thermostats and alarm systems
What purpose does an alarm serve for thermostats?
-if temp goes up to a certain temp for a certain amt of time--> alarm goes off
-should connect it to something else-activate cell or pager
what are process and controls?
all operations should be done under SANITARY conditions
-raw materials kept segregated from finished materials
-prevent cross contamination
-KNOW YOUR PRODUCT FLOW
what is plaque
an example of a biofilm
what do you use to remove organic base (fats) soils?
alkaline base cleaners
What do you use to remove inorganic base soils?
use acid based cleaners
what is critical for a water source
that it is clean
TACTWINS
Time Agitation Concentration Temperature Water Individual Nature of Soil Surface

**Unit operations:cleaning
What is soil described as?
material that is in the wrong location. May include dirt, dust, organic materials (proteins, fats, CHO) & inorganic materials (mineral deposits)
Time
longer time of treatment often results in better cleaning
C.I.P.
Clean in place
What is an example of a biofilm?
Plaque
*Bacteria makes protein to protect itself
How does the USDA and FDA address GMO's?
FDA = addressed in 2010
USDA = addressed in sanitary 416
What should the equipment be like?
-Clean-able
-Non porous
-Corrosion Resistant (i.e. against High Acid Foods)
What is the definition of cleaning?
-Physical removal of soil from a surface.
(Includes:separating the soil from the surface, dispersion of the soil in the cleaning compound, preventing redeposition of released soil)
What is soil?
- Material in the wrong location
(i.e. dirt, dust, organic materials such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates and inorganic materials such as mineral deposits)
What are examples of soil?
-Fat on a cutting board
-Grease on a conveyor belt
-Limestone
-Blood
What does time mean according to TACTWINS?
-Length of Treatment
*Longer time of treatment often results in better cleaning.
Why must one be careful with powder soap?
Possibly breathe in--->soap can emulsify the fat in lungs (villi on the membrane--->lung capacity will decrease (harder to absorb oxygen)
What does MSDS stand for?
Material Safety Data Sheet
What does agitation mean when relating to TACTWINS?
-Scouring/scrubbing will remove outer layer of soil allowing for deeper cleaning
(i.e. “elbow grease”, pressure jets (dish washers), spray balls)
What does concentration mean when relating to TACTWINS?
-Strength of cleaner depends in part of soil
What are the benefits of hot water for cleaning purposes?
-Higher temp. helps to melt felts
-aids detergents to remove fats faster
What are the disadvantages of hot water for cleaning purposes?
-Proteins can denature
-Sugars can caramelize
What are examples of water soluble soils?
-Inorganic salts, sugars, starches, minerals that are not baked or dried on
Water insoluble soils are...
Soluble in cleaning solution containing detergent or solubilizing agent.
How does emulsification work?
Anionic surfactant is added to the water--->End result is a micelle composed of fats surrounded by the surfactant. The micelle is suspended in the water and will allow for the easy removal of the fat when the water is washed/flushed away.
What is sulfuric acid?
Strong inorganic acid
What does it mean to deflocculate soil?
Break a big mass into smaller pieces
What are issues that can arise when using acid based cleaners?
-Can cause burns
-Ulcers to the lungs if inhaled
-Tarnish metals.
What can strong alkaline cleaners (NaOH) do?
-Turn things into soap
-Exothermic reaction or boiling off (vaporization) of cleaners can cause lung issues
-Used in smokehouses and ovens to remove heavy soils
-Highly corrosive
-Chemical burns
What do heavy duty alkaline cleaners do?
-Moderate Dissolving power
-Slightly corrosive
-Good for use in high pressure washer
-May be used for manual cleaning
-Good on fats
What are some protein enzymes that can be used as cleaners?
-Pepsin
-Trypsin
-Papase
*chlorine is not an enzyme
What can make heavy duty solvents less effective?
They can form emulsion in water
Why should abrasive cleaners be used with caution?
They can scratch and mar surfaces.
What does it mean to sanitize?
To lower the numbers of bacteria and pathogens to a safe or healthful level
When does sanitizing not work well?
On a dirty surface
What does alcohol do?
Dissolves fatty membranes
What are different options for sanitizing?
Either thermal (heat) or chemical sanitizing
What can heat be used as to penetrate through surfaces?
-Steam (without touching the object)
What are issues with using steam as a sanitizing agent?
-Very expensive
-Workers can mistake water vapors for steam.
-If surface highly contaminated, can precipitate soil and cause issues with burn on.
-Is a potential burn hazard
-FOOD GRADE?
What will hot water kill?
Vegetative bacterial cells (not necessarily Clostridia and Bacillus spores)
When should the temperature of a dishwasher be taken?
Before the water enters the dishwasher
Where should the thermometer be placed in order to get a correct reading?
Headspace (like in milk)
How does steam burn?
Twice (once as steam and second as hot water)
What do spore cells not do?
Reproduce
What is a ferry ring?
A ring of mushrooms
Why do would you rinse soap?
So it does not inactive sanitizers
What would be characteristics of the ideal sanitizer?
-Kill a wide range of microorganisms
-Effective in presence of organic matter
-Non toxic/non irritating
-Acceptable odor/no odor
-Inexpensive
-Readily available
-Easy to use/mix/prepare
-Stable at the of storage
-Easy to measure
What are factors that would effect sanitizers?
-Exposure Time
-Temperature
-Concentration
-pH
-Equipment cleanliness
-Water Hardness
-Bacterial Attachment
-Spore formers
What does chlorine do as a sanitizing agent?
-Disrupts protein synthesis
-Oxidative decarboxylation of amino acids to nitrites and aldhydes
-Reacts with nucleic acids, pyrimidines, purines(A & G) to make then non-functional.
-Inhibits glucose oxidation: HOCl can interact with sulfhydryl groups of amino acids in enzymes used for CHO utilization
-Vegetative Cells: May cause changes in cell membrane permeability leading to issues of extra-cellular nutrient uptake (transport)
-Spores: May stimulate spores to germinate.
What are advantages to using chlorine?
-Inexpensive
-Kills a wide variety of organisms
-Leaves no film on surfaces
-Effective in hard water
-Effective at low concentration: 50 ppm is anti-listerial
What is an iodophor?
Elemental iodine + nonionic surfactants (detergents)
What are examples of surfactants
-Shampoo
-Toothpaste
-Iodine
What is a tincture?
An alcoholic extract or a solution of a non-volatile substance
(i.e. Iodine)
How do Quats work?
Hydrogen ions enter the cytoplasm ---> disrupts the environment--->the cell then has to use so much energy to pump the H's out--->No more energy is left to grow (enzyme inhibition.)
When is hydrogen peroxide used?
Aseptic packaging
What are the effects of radiation?
-Sterilize things
-Inactivation of spores
Which acts regulate packaging?
-Food Drug & Cosmetic Act
-Fair Packaging and Labeling Act
-Nutritional Labeling and Education Act of 1990
What is the packaging that directly touches the food?
Primary packaging
What does a common name on a label need to provide?
-Whey protein comes from milk so the label must say contains dairy
What occurs when something gets freezer burned?
The product losses water under dry conditions
What does it mean to unitize?
Have different packaging sizes (soda keg vs. a 6 pack)
What shows that a can top has not been tampered with?
It should have a concave top for safety
What can places that lactic acid for sanitation get?
A letter from the FDA stating that their lactic acid as a sanitizer is food grade
who is reliable for the strength and quality of secondary packaging?
The manufacturer