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84 Cards in this Set

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What is journalism for?
to inform the public

provide public with a forum

entertainment

communicate with mass amounts of people

help
Journalism is also for three other things
Building communities

citizenship

democracy - you are able to have an opinion and it lets you know the truth
What is journalism's primary purpose?
to provide citizens with information they need to be free and self governing
What does journalism have an obligation to do?
tell the truth
Who is journalism's first loyalty to?
its citizens
What is journalism's essence?
a dicipline of verification

which means they interview both sides of the story
What must journalism's practictioners do?
maintain an independence from those they cover

which means they must remain unbias
What must journalism serve as?
An independent monitor of power
What must journalism provide for?
A forum for public criticism and compromise
What must journalism strive to make?
It must strie to make the significant interesting and relevant
What must journalism keep the news?
comprehensive and proportional
What must journalism's practioners be allowed to exercise?
Their personal conscience
What is news?
relevant to the people

something that affects you

entertainment

interesting
What is news in three words?

These are also the broad guidelinesfor judging the news value of an event
Relevance

Usefulness

Interest
What are the most important guidelines for judging news value?
Impact

Conflict

Novelty

Prominence

Proximity

Timeliness
Explain Impact
How many people are impacted by the story
the greater the impact...
the more likely it is newsworthy
Explain Conflict
Bad news is often more newsworthy than good news
Explain Novelty
People or events may be interesting and therefore newsworthy just because they are unusual or bizarre
Which is a novelty...

a regular pumpkin?

or one the size of a car?
The one the size or a car becasue it is bizarre, therefore newsworthy
Explain Prominence
Names make news. The bigger the names...the bigger the news
Explain Proximity
The closer to home a story takes place, the more newsworthy

people often want to know how the news relates to their own community
Explain Timeliness
News needs to be new. To be relevant and timely it must be new.
Name the 5 things that are vital functions of journalism in a free society
Journalist...

1. report the news

2. monitor power

3. uncover justice

4. tell stories that delight and amaze

5. sustain communities
Is it possible to be objective?
You can try to not look at it just from one perspective, but it is virtually impossible because of personal baggage. (How you were raised, education, etc)
What can journalist be in order to be as objective as possible?
Accurate

Fair

Balenced
What two questions should ever journalist ask before publishing a story?
Is it accurate?

Is it fair?
What does accuracy entail?
All names must be spelled correctly, quotes must be directly quoted not paraphrased, if math is involved the numbers must ad up, etc
What does fairness entail?
All viewpoints should be represented in the story
What does fairness require?
That you make every effort to avoid following you own biases in your reporting and your writing
What is the frame of a story?
The viewpoint, or prespective, from which you tell a story
What type of frame should an honest journalism portray?
The frame the reveals the story most fully and fairly
What is news judgement?
Deciding what news is important
Are all stories equally important?
NO, you need to publish what your particular readers would be interested in
What do news editors rely on?
The 5 News values in order to make their news judgement
What are the four steps for news value in action?
1. Which news comes first?

2. How news is placed on the page?

3. Which facts come first in the story?

4. What words to use in headlines?
What does the editorial committee do?
They may pick stories that people should know and are not necessarily going to be interested in.
How can editors and reporters be bias?
1. How they were raised

2. Their own personal beleifs
Is it possible to completely eliminate bias?
no, we have to accept out bias but be fair
Reporters are often blind to their own prejustices. What is one way for them to avoid the possiblity of a prejudtise story?
To not cover stories that you have been personally affected by.

ex: date rape, abuse, etc
What are four warning signs of bias?
Imbalence

Two Sides

Slanted language

patronizing/condescending approches
Explain imbalence
Only having one side of the story
Explain slanted language
"chick" "babe"

degrading etc
Explain patronizing/condescending approaches
Nerd

Old Timer

Single Mother

Weak-kneed

Threaten

Trailer Park

Elderly

etc
Interviewing
A conversation with a source
What is the most basic requirement of any successful interview?
A reasonable degree of trust between the reporter and the source
If you interview someone continually what is a good way to build trust?
1. get quotes right

2. get to know the source
When you prepare for a topic what should you do before you report on it?
You need to find out what has been reported prior to your interview
When you prepare for a person?
Know their biography and their expertise regarding your story
How should you set up the interview?
It should be at the interviewers convinence
Should you tell the source how must time you will need for the interview?
yes
What is the advantage of having a the interview in a neutral location?
IT can be more relaxed and the ball is in your court. They don't have any power over you.
What two things technical things should you ask the source about prior to the interviews?
About a recording device and a photographer
What should you let the source do with the quotes you are using?
Let them check the accuracy of them
What ground rules should you make prior to the interview?
Make sure everything is on the record and that everything is attributale
What types of questions should you ask?
Neutral, open ended questions
What type of question is this?

Do you have a dog?
Closed ended
What types of question is this?

Will you explain to me the best qualities about your dog?
Open ended
Attribution
credit for quotes
For all news storys what form of speech should you use?
only the word say
On a person's first reference in a story what part of the name do you use?
First and last name on first reference
What part of the name do you use on the second and subsequent reference?
Last name only
When two people with the same last name are in your story which name do you use?
The first and last name throughout the story
How should you place teh attribution?

Joan Collins said?
or
said Joan Collins?
Joan Collins said
What is attribution not needed for?
1. events or facts that the reporter actually witnesses

2. obvious facts and points of public knowledge
When should attribution come within a quote?
At the end of the first quoted sentence.

"I love cats," Joan said. "They are furry".
When does said come before the person's name?

said Joan...
When there is additional information about the source

"I have experianced success with that simple procedure," said Bob Mortis,who is a physician in Colombus, GA.
In regular news stories you should not attribute to oftne. However, when should the story be dense with attribution even when it slows the story down?
When it is news about an inflammatory, sensetive, or legal issue.
What are the three variation of said that you can use?
1. Told

2. According to

3.
Explain when you can use told?
This is useful when the person is quoted is speaking in a public forum

"Read my lips, nop new taxes," President Bush told the nation last night.
When do you use said in a statement?
This indecates the quoted matter was from a media release
When do you use according to?
Often used when there is no direct quotation or when material is being summarized.
What do you do with a quote inside of a quote?
Use single quote marks for internal quote

"The surgeon called it 'just a simple technique,'" he siad.
What is a lead?
The first paragraph or two of a news story

It is also the bait or the lure of the story
What should the lead be?
Clear and specific
What are the two types of leads?
1. Direct

2. Delayed/Blind
What is a direct lead?
Tells the reader the most impratant aspect of the story at once
What is a delayed lead?
This entices teh reader into the story by hinting at its content
What six basic questions do you ask yourself when writing a lead?
Who?

What?

Where?

When?

Why?

How?
How long should the lead be?
No more than 35 words
Is this the way a lead should be written?

Hits from the most recent U2 album were preformed Wednesday.
No, that is in passive voice. It should look like this

U2 preformed hits from their most recent album Wednesday.
Immediate Identification Lead
Used with people of prominence
When do you use a person's name in the lead?
When they are a person of prominence and that is the ONLY time.
Delayed identification/Blind lead
Use when person or organization has little name recognition