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39 Cards in this Set

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Who were Ellsworth Woodward and Mary Given Sheerer?
Among the young faculty hired to develop Newcomb's program of art education was Ellsworth Woodward, who brought with him traditions he learned at the Rhode Island School of Design. Woodward envisioned an ambitious program of vocational training for young women artists. Under his guidance, Newcomb Pottery was established in 1894 after Mary Given Sheerer arrived from Cincinnati to teach pottery and china decoration. Sheerer became a dedicated leader within the early Newcomb community and a respected authority on ceramics.

SOURCE: http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/intro.html
What is Newcomb?
Newcomb College was established in 1886 with a gift from Josephine Louise Newcomb. The widow of a wealthy New Orleans Merchant, she wanted to establish a women's college in the memory of her daughter, Sophie. The college was a "coordinate" college with Tulane University, meaning the two shared resources to an extent, however the young women of Newcomb were educated seperately. The intent of the college was not only to educate girls in a traditional sense, but also to provide them with a skill and a way to provide for themselves.

Newcomb remained in existance until 2005, when it was fully integrated with Tulane as a part of the college's Katrina recovery plan. Newcomb College was replaced with the Newcomb Institute which provides progamming and support to the female population of Tulane. Heirs of Josephine are still fighting to have Newcomb restored to a degree granting college, claiming the Institute violates the stipulations of Josephines gift.


SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
www.newcomblives.com
When did the Newcomb Pottery open?
The first class in chana painting and pottery began in 1894. The first public exhibition and sale was in June 1896.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts, by Poesch and Main, 2003.
When did the Newcomb Pottery close?
In 1948, when Francis Ford retired, the official mark of Newcomb pottery was also retired.

Rumor states that during a late 1940's renovation of the art department, pottery was thrown from the windows to make room for the workers.

Change in taste and trends in art necessitated the closing of the pottery sales room, which was housed in the Pottery building on Camp St. Today the building is a historic landmark.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts, by Poesch and Main, 2003.

http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/today.html
Were the potters and designers paid for their pieces?
Yes, the pottery was sold and artists were compensated for their work. Early in the pottery's history, female students were only compensated at the point of sale. This meant that if a piece was broken in the kiln, the artist who designed it wasn't paid. As the demand for Newcomb Pottery increased, this system was changed, and artists were compensated for their designs regardless of outcome.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main
Why is Joseph Meyer listed as the potter on almost all the pieces?
Joseph Meyer was a professional potter employed by Newcomb. It was assumed that a man was needed to work the clay, throw the pots, fire the kiln, and handle the glazing. The women of Newcomb drew or selected the shape they wanted and Meyer threw them. He was employed by Newcomb from 1896-1927.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts, by Poesch and Main, 2003."
How did the Newcomb art program start?
The first President of Newcomb, Brandt Dixon stated that "the trend of education now is industrial" and sought to provide Newcomb women with a skill. Dixon and Tulane President, William Johnston, felt that increased manufacturing was needed to strenghen the economic position of New Orleans. Thus women in Newcomb college produced many art forms-- pottery, jewelry, embroidery, etc. to fill an economic need in New Orleans.


SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Sadie Irvine
Sadie Irvine worked as a Newcomb craftsman longer than any other woman and was a cornerstone of the program. She was enrolled as a student from 1902-1908 (she was a graduate student from 1906-1908) and was associated with the program as an artist and instructor until her retirement in 1952.

**One of the most famous designs of the pottery were the oak tree and the moon, both attributed to Miss Sadie Irvine. She recalled, "I was accused of doing the first oak-tree decoration, also the first moon. I have surely lived to regret it. Our beautiful moss-draped oak trees appealed to the buying public but nothing is less suited to the tall graceful vases -- no way to convey the true character of the tree. And oh, how boring it was to use the same motif over and over and over, though each one was a fresh drawing (no Newcombe pot was ever duplicated unless the purchases asked for it)."

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003

http://www.lib.lsu.edu/soc/women/lawomen/irvine.html
Anna Frances Simpson
"Fanny" Simpson, classmate to Sadie Irvine, was a Newcomb student from 1902-1908 earning both an undergraduate and graduate degree. She exhibited an individuality in her pottery and embroidery that made her a master of her crafts.


SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Henrietta Bailey
Henrietta was an early member of the Pottery Designers, first listed as a Normal Art (meaning preparing for a teaching career) student in 1901-1902. She remained associated with Newcomb as a student and teacher, filling in for Mary Sheerer in 1908-1909, 1913-1914, and 1914-1915. Joined staff permanently in 1926 until retirement in 1938.


SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
May Dunn
May first enrolled in 1906 as a normal art student. She completed her degree in 1910.


SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Marie deHoa LeBlanc
Graduated with a diploma in Normal Art in 1898. Enrolled in the Newcomb Graduate Art program 1899-1902.
She was listed as a pottery worker from 1901-1908 in the Tulane Catalogue and Jambalaya. She was an art craftsman from 1908-1914 and continued doing design, pottery work, and embroidery.
In 1902 she received a scholarship to Harvard and in 1904 received an anonymous scholarship to study abroad in Europe.
She was awarded a bronze medal in 1904 at the LA Purchase Exposition for four pieces of pottery. She also exhibited in the 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition, at the Varied Industries Palace and in Newcomb's Education Palace.

**Marie and sister Emilie were of creole descent and raised in the French Quarter of New Orleans. Despite the skepticism many creole families had about higher education for girls, they were allowed to Attend Newcomb. Marie went on to study art at Harvard, the Art Institute of Chicago and throughout Europe.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003

http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/leblanc.html
Emilie deHoa LeBlanc
Among the first members of the pottery decoration class, Emilie LeBlanc was awarded a Diploma in Normal Art in 1897. Miss LeBlanc continued in the Art Program enrolled as a Graduate Art student the sessions of 1897-1899. The Tulane catalogue and Jambalaya listed Miss LeBlanc as a post-graduate in 1900-1901 and a pottery worker from 1901 to 1905. The Board of Administrators of Tulane University retroactively awarded a Bachelor of Design to Emilie LeBlanc on June 8, 1921.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Ada Wilt Lonnegan
As one of the first members of the Newcomb Art program, Ada Lonnegan enrolled in the Normal Art program in 1896. She received a Diploma in Art in 1900, and attended the Graduate Art program in 1900-1901. The Tulane catalogue and Jambalaya listed Mrs. Lonnegan in Pottery Design from 1901 to 1904 and 1905-1906. Her discipline in design complemented her pottery decoration and calligraphy. She exhibited work at the LA Purchase Exposition in St. Louis in 1904.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Cynthia Pugh Littlejohn
Received her Diploma in Art in 1906 from Newcomb. She returned that year to the Graduate School until 1908 and then joined the Art Craftsmen from 1908-1910 and 1914-1920. In 1908 she received a scholarship for summer travel and study. She distinguished herself in the field of pottery design and exhibited works at the Varied Industries Palace, the Newcomb Model Room in the Education Palace, and at the Panama-Pacific Exposition in 1915.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Corinna Morgiana Luria
Corinna Luria entered Newcomb Art School as a freshman in 1910. Graduating with a Diploma in Art in 1913, she joined the Graduate Art program from 1913 to 1915. She was listed as an Art Craftsman the following session of 1915-1916. Miss Luria was an exceptional watercolorist.
Examples of her work were shown in the Newcomb Model Room in the Education Palace ant the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Harriet Coulter Joor
Hattie Joor was among the first members of the Normal Art Program, receiving a certificate for completion of her sophomore year in 1887-1888. She was a member of the Newcomb College graduating class of 1895, receiving a Bachelor of Science degree. She was enrolled as a Special Art student 1896-1900 spending the 1900-1901 session in Graduate Art. The printed catalogue listed Miss Joor as a Pottery Designer 1901-1906. She also showed skill in watercolor.
She was one of the first students to attend Dow's Summer School at Ipswich in 1900. She exhibited works at the 1904 LA Purchase Expo in St. Louis. In 1905 she left New Orleans to teach at the University of Chicago, then taught at Southwestern Louisiana University in Lafayette, LA.

**Harriet was the daughter of a Tulane Physician and Botanist. It was very important to her parents that she receive an education. Harriet was one of the first Newcomb girls to leave the south. She was further educated in Massachusetts, taught at the University of Chicago, lived in South Dakota, and eventually returned to the south, teaching at USL, among other places.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003

http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/joor.html
Lillian A. Guedry
Enrolled as a Special Art Student from 1899 to 1902, Lillian Guedry graduated from the Newcomb Art Shool in 1903. She continued as a Graduate Art student for the 1903-1905 sessions. The Jambalaya of 1904 listed Miss Guedry as a pottery worker.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Gertrude Roberts Smith
The first faculty member recruited for the new art program after the initial employment of the Woodward brothers. She joined the faculty during the 1889-1890 session as Assistant Professor of Drawing and Painting. She was the facutly supervisor of the textile and embroidery workers, and worked on her own as a painter and water-colorist, as well as needlework and weaving. In 1903 she became full Professor of Drawing and Painting, and in 1907 Professor of Watercolor Painting and Decoration of Textiles, where she remained until her retirement in 1934.
Her works were exhibited in the Newcomb model room in the Education Palace at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco in 1915.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Sabina Elliot Wells
Though not with the Newcomb Art program long, Sabina Wells created some of the programs most impressive pieces. She was enrolled from 1902-1904. Her boldy incised motifs show a great appreciation of nature, as well as a strong sense of design.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Leona Nicholson
Leona Nicholson was associated with Newcomb Art as an undergraduate and graduate student, as well as an art craftsman. She first enrolled in Newcomb in 1896-1897, and after getting married, returned as a special art student in 1899-1900. She received her undergraduate diploma in 1901 and was a graduate student until 1903.

She received distinction for her pottery decoration and later worked as a studio potter, hand building forms and making her own glazes.

**A vase by Leona sold in 2000 for $82,500, the highest recorded price for a piece of Newcomb Pottery.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Katherine Kopman
Katherine was a member of the first pottery decoration class and earned her diploma in 1895. She was a graduate student from 1896-1898. In 1896 she was appointed as a drawing instructor and her tenure covered the sessions of 1898-1905 and 1907-1913.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Ellsworth Woodward
Woodward came to New Orleans in 1885 from New England. He and several others, including, his brother William and Mary Given Sheerer, sought to provide the young ladies of post Civil War New Orleans useful training, thus creating the art pottery.

Woodward was trained at the Rhode Island School of Design and, along with brother William, served as instructor there. Woodward joined the Tulane faculty in 1884 and taught decorative arts at night. When Newcomb was established Woodward went on to serve as head of the art program.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Corrine Chalaron
Chalaron was a Newcomb artist in the later years of the program, earning her art degree in 1920. She was an art craftsmen from 1922-1924 and in 1925-1926. Miss Chalaron erolled in the Tulane School of Architecture and received her architecture degree in 1926.

Corrine studied under Sadie Irvine,Henriettta Bailey, and Anna Frances Simpson. Her designs are recognizable for lotus like soft edges, inspired by the widespread interest in tomb of Tutankhamen, which was discovered in 1922.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Jonathan Hunt
Hunt replaced Joseph Meyer as potter in 1928. He stayed with the Newcomb art program until 1933-34, when he was replaced by Kenneth Smith.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
Jules Gabry
Gabry was the first potter of the Newcomb art program. Gabry came from the Golf Juan Pottery in France, which was famous for its iridescent glaze. Gabry was only with the program for about a year before he committed suicide by drowining in 1897. Gabry was replaced by Joseph Meyer.

SOURCE: Newcomb Pottery and Crafts by Poesch and Main, 2003
How many pieces of Newcomb Pottery were produced?
in its 45 year span close to 70,000 pieces of pottery were produced by approximately 90 women artists.

SOURCE:http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/today.html
Collectors Information
Newcomb Pottery is still highly sought after by art collectors. In 2000 a record high price for Newcomb pottery was set by Neal Auction Co. of New Orleans, when a vase by Leona Nicholson (featured in this exhibit) sold for $82,500. In Feb.,2002, a rare high glazed vase decorated with an iris motif by Maria de Hoa LeBlanc sold for $28,750; a "Moon and Moss" matte glaze vase decorated by Anna Frances Simpson, $4,025; and the same type by Sadie Irvine for $10,350.

SOURCE:http://www.nealauction.com/indexnet.html
What is a tyg?
A Tyg is a large English mug with three or more handles dividing the rim into sections for several drinkers. These tall, black-glazed, red-bodied drinking vessels were produced from the 15th century through the first half of the 17th century, peaking in popularity during the 16th and 17th centuries. Some were made with as many as nine handles.[1]

The multiple handles also allow hot drinks to be passed around without pain.

Tygs were made in large quantities at Wrotham in Kent and in many Staffordshire factories. Examples have surfaced at 17th century American colonial sites, as well as in the UK.[2]

Also known as Trinity Youth Group (TYG)

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyg
Tygs as 17th century slipware
Wares decorated with dotted and trailed slip were made at Wrotham, Kent, and in London during the first half of the 17th century. Wrotham is noted principally for drinking mugs with two or more handles, known as tygs.

SOURCE:
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-73883/pottery#600186.hook
Harriet Joor's Mark
Marks were used to identify which designers had worked on each piece. This was Harriet Joor's mark.
Harriet Joor's Mark
H.C. Joor H.J.
Source:Newcomb Pottery Markings,
www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/marks.html
Symbols and words used to identify Newcomb Pottery
Impressed, incised or painted marks that changed over time:
"Newcomb College"--1884-1899
the "N" inside the "C"--1897-1940
circle inside the diamond--turn of the century
fourth row symbols--1901
last row symbols--1902
Source: Newcomb Pottery Markings, www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/marks.html
Sadie Irvine's Marks
there are two different marks
Source:http://www.tulane.ecu/~wc/pottery/marks.html
Emilie de Hoa LeBlanc's Marks
Shows four marks
Source: http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/marks.html
Marie de Hoa LeBlanc's Marks
Two symbols
Source:http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/marks.html
Quote by Ellsworth Woodward, one of the founders, in the first issue of The Newcomb Arcade
"A community is fortunate which has the wisdom to foster the talent of its children and provides effective ways for its employment."
Source: The Newcomb Arcade, Volume I, Number One, January, 1909, page 27;
http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/arcade.html
History of Arts and Crafts schools in America
In reaction to the industrial age in England, John Ruskin, in 1851, the first professor of art history at Oxford University,said,"all cast and machine work is bad; as work . . . in is dishonest." To keep pace with German and French porcelain and glass artisans, England established institutions to teach principles of good design. This movement jump to America and in 1876 at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition,William &Ellsworth Woodward were "awakened",enrolled at the Rhode Island School of Design, and were part of the original faculty members at Newcomb College.
Source: http://lsm.crt.state.la.us/newcomb/newcomb1.htm
Where did the glazes originate?
1895-1900: earthtones plus experiments with a variety of clay bodies, glazes, and colors.
1910-1918: transparent matte glaze over blue and green underglazes. Paul Cox was brought to Newcomb in 1910 to improve the quality of the clay and glazes. Cox developed the soft, waxy semi-matte glazes that Newcomb Pottery become famous for during its transitional period of production. Cox was with Newcomb until 1918.
1918-1928:pink added to some underglazes
1928-1934:a strong cobalt blue with green was added
1935-1940: blues, soft pinks, and greens of different shades appeared
sources: http://www.tulane.edu/~wc/pottery/colors.html
http://www.justartpottery.com/collectors_pottery/newcomb_pottery_history.htm