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140 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Most product development projects use some form of:
concurrent system.
The ___________________ keeps the product development team together--and focused.
product protocol
End-user benefit is primarily provided by the:
core product.
The physical form of the product--or the service sequence--is described as the:
formal product.
The full complement of pre- and post-sale services that accompany/support a product is termed the:
augmented product
The FIRST general purpose of the product protocol is:
specification of each department's contribution to the final product.
The SECONDARY purpose of the protocol statement is to:
-communicate essentials to all players.

-support integrated actions.

-guide actions consistently with the full screen test and financials.

-provide targets for all players.
The primary time concern of the product protocol is in regard to:
process or cycle time.
It is imperative that product protocols state requirements in ______________ terms.
The product protocol will PRIMARILY focus on:
the core product.
"Betting" on an unproven technology is an example of:
Product protocols should specify:
-the primary target market.

-the secondary target market(s).

-at least one fall-back target market.
Joint space mapping provides input for _______________ in the product protocol.
product positioning
Protocols for services are especially likely to:
Technical people are MOST likely to focus upon:
Features are MOST likely to appear in protocols when:
-they are required by regulations.

-end-user's existing equipment imposes limitations.

-established industry practice is entrenched.

-upper management has strong preferences.
Competitive comparisons may be incorporated in a protocol through:

-specification of a policy that must be matched.

-specification of required levels of differentiation.
The product protocol is MOST likely to include the marketing factor(s) of:
-target market(s)


The primary marketing benefit of employing OFD is:
the strong focus on customer needs.
The product protocol is:

-fraught with politics.

-only an aid to--not a substitute for--thinking.

-strengthened if it is produced by a multifunctional new products team.
_____________ is “the synthesis of technology and human needs into manufacturable products.”
Design may be charged with:
-speeding the product to market.

-easing the manufacturing process.

-differentiating the product.

-meeting customer needs.
________________ refers to the design of products to be usable by anyone regardless of age or ability.
Universal design
All of the following are principles of design:
-equitable use.

-flexibility in use.

-perceptible information.

-low physical effort.
The purpose of _______________ is to help build/support public perception of the firm—and ultimately, its corporate identity.
visual equity
Concern for the environment has led to a focus upon:
design and disassembly
A good design is:
-aesthetically pleasing.

-easy to make correctly.


-easy to use.
Office furniture, tools, and heavy equipment are likely to emphasize design which emphasizes:
The process by which a customer need is developed into a product design is called:
product architecture.
The ________________ shows the components and functional elements of the product and how they are interconnected.
product schematic
A “chunk” is perhaps getter described as a(n):
The product is arranged in several configurations to identify the “best” solutions in the creation of:
geometric layouts.
_______________ products share existing platforms with modifications to better serve specific users.
Industrial designs should be evaluated on the basis of:
-the quality of the user interface.

-emotional appeal.

-maintenance and repair.

-product differentiation.
Product testing in real-usage situations requires:
a comprehensive prototype.
All of the following are direct participants in the design process except:
marketing personnel.
Placing individuals and functional areas in close proximity is an attempt to enhance integration, communication, and productivity through:
Global business, the technical revolution, and fears of global terrorism has been addressed recently by:
digital connectivity.
The task of checking ease of assembly and manufacturing—and encouraging product simplification is primarily entrusted to:
Stereolithography has contributed to the advent of:
rapid prototyping.
Which of the following organizational approaches tends to have the LEAST product focus?
functional organization
Innovation is LEAST likely to occur under a ______________ form of organization.
Favoring a project is called:
The ____________________ option works best for situations in which both functional and project views are critical to success.
balanced matrix
The _______________ option is staffed by people who are project-oriented more than functionally focused.
project matrix
The ultimate in projectization occurs under the _________________ option.
A ___________________ maybe used to effect a "divorce" between the firm and the project development effort.
spinout venture
By nature, venture teams are:
-risk-seeking and highly innovative.


-hard to establish.

-hard to implement.
The group leader enjoys the greatest amount of power in a _______________ organization.
The venture group:
-is highly autonomous.

-is totally focused on product innovation.

-specializes in high risk projects.

-deal sin projects that will be disruptive to "business as usual".
If high-level technical expertise is required, a _______________ is required, a ___________ organization may be indicated.
If speed-to-market is critical, the _______________ is usually preferable.
project team
The MOST important result of collaboration is:
Which of the following denotes the firm's ULTIMATE willingness to trust an employees judgment and actions?
The team member most like an entrepreneur is the:
product champion.
The following statement about champions IS NOT TRUE:
Champions are associated with market successes.
Networks consist of:


-operating relationships.
Interface management:
-takes time, not unique skills.

-rewards managers with the interface they earn.

-requires the rapid removal of any participants who refuse to cooperate or who "sabotage" the project.
Which of the following management styles relies upon collaboration to solve the problem via a solution all parties are committed to:
Which of the following is the most rare case?
allowing the development team to launch the new product
The first output of technical development is:
a prototype.
The task of testing end-user's experience with the new item is referred to as:
-product use testing.

-field testing.

-user testing.
Which of the following is often used as a synonym for market testing?
-product use testing

-marketing acceptance testing

-field testing

-user testing
In a truly market-oriented firm, the task of marketing is perceived as:
information coordination.
In ______________ testing, a physical prototype is tested by "real" consumers under normal operating conditions.
Which of the following is the most significant disadvantage associated with use testing?
the risk that competitors may get to market first
Food products tend to fail at a _____________ rate.
80-90 percent
Copying the product of another firm:
-usually provides only small gains.

-encourages further imitation.

-typically fuels strong price competition.

-often includes copying the product's mistakes as well.
End-use tests conducted in laboratories:
-isolates users from mistakes.

-isolates users from competitive efforts to trash the product.

-understates the disruptive impact of change upon the family.

-allows the firm to learn from its errors.
Use-testing provides one of very few opportunities to assess the suitability of/changes required to the:
augmented product.
Initial reactions are especially important for:
Short-term use test, conducted at selected external customer sites, or ______________ tests, began in the computer industry and spread to other areas.
Which of the following types of testing produces the BEST product use test?
Gamma testing
Beta testing is likely to fail if:
-its warnings are ignored.

-firms attempt to do it themselves.

-it is done too late in the process.

-measurable specifications are not used.
The "user group" often includes:
-lab personnel.



ANY sample should be:


If competitive comparisons are required, the firm should employ:
blind testthe desired innovativeness of the product.s.
The testing of new medications is BEST accomplished under conditions of:
total control.
Which of the following types of testing is generally felt to be the "ideal" form of combination testing?
sequential monadic tests.
Ideally, products used for testing should come from:
final production.
The marketing department is most heavily involved in:
tactical launch decisions.
Strategic launch decisions include:
-the strategic platform.

-the desired innovativeness of the product.


-the driver of new product development.
The most expensive/risky part of the new product process is:
Strategic "givens":
-are difficult/costly to change.

-influence tactical decisions.

-typically "come with" the project.

-largely define the types of resistance that must be overcome.
Demand for the product category is called:
primary demand.
Appeals to encourage customer migration are intended to stimulate:
replacement demand.
Which of the following emphasizes efforts to take market share from competitive firms?
replacement demand
"Fads" are products that are:
launched with the intent of remaining in the market for year--or less.
Smaller firms may try to reduce the risks of alarming market leaders by adopting a strategy of:
cautious entry.
IDEALLY, the development/launch budgets for a new product would be considered a(n):
Most new products are:
extensions/additions/replacements for existing products.
Which of the following replacement strategies is most aggressive?
butt-on replacement
An aggressive competitor may seek to benefit from "comparative advertising" as part of a strategy of:
aiming directly at a specified competitor.
Markets may be segmented on the basis of:
-end use.



Firms may seek to reduce the risk of selecting a single target market by employing a(n) ________________ strategy.
paralegal development
Database marketers have been able to focus in specific market "niches" called ____________ with highly "tailored" offerings.
________________ is an attempt to merge the benefits of mass production with the uniqueness of tailored products.
In _________________ product testing, customers can build the desired product, obtain a price estimate, and state their likelihood of making a purchase.
Consumers that are risk-takers, mobile, financially well-off, cosmopolitan, and highly sociable are likely to be:
innovators/early adopters.
A "good" brand name should be:
-indicative/summarize product benefits.

-be unique--capable of registration.

-appreciable for use on later related additions to the line.

-short, easy to spell, pronounce, and remember.
The launch cycle is an expansion of the introductory stage of the:
product life cycle.
The firm's capability to compete is established in the:
prelaunch stage.
Signaling efforts may include:

-trade shows.

-salesforce comments.

-stocking calls.
If a firm's product sales depends on sales of complimentary products it sells, a(n) ____________ is said to exist.
indirect network externalities.
________________ network externalities exist if product sales depend on the number of people that have adopted it.
Software producers often "pitch" innovative new products called ________________ long before introduction--perhaps completion.
In the product launch, heavy expenditures are undertaken to overcome sales inertia by establishing a(n):
The key decision to be made in the beachhead stage is:
when to end it.
High(skimming) prices are characteristic of:
innovative new products.
Barriers to entry are a characteristic ploy used in the introduction of:
offensive improvements.
Increased penetration of existing markets is a primary goal for:
defensive additions.
A separate communications mix may be required for:

-the end-user from resellers.


-end-users from the firm/reseller team.
The copy strategy statement should include:
-the targeted market/segment.

-the product positioning statement.

-the communication mix involved.

-the major copy points to be communicated.
For which of the following is the sales department typically most important?
new product development.
The practice of buying a competitor's goods from resellers in order to face-up space for those resellers to stock our product is called:
"Trial" may be:


Which of the following barriers to trial is MOST difficult to overcome?
low relative advantage
Which of the following types of pricing is most difficult to justify/maintain?
Which of the following might be used to "buy" market share and/or discourage competitor entry?
penetration pricing
Which of the following pricing approaches offers the best of all worlds for most innovations?
Which of the following tools of market testing is least likely to be used today?
test marketing
Market testing provides "solid":
-forecasts of dollar sales.

-forecasts of unit volume.

-diagnostic information.
The following statement about market testing IS NOT TRUE:
the forecast/predictions provided are absolutely accurate
Market testing may be skipped if:
-capital investments are small and forecasts are conservative.

-use tests went well-consumer interest is high.

-firm is experienced/successful in the business.

-advertising has been successfully tested and does not require perfect execution.
Market test costs include:
-direct testing costs.

-costs of the launch itself.

-lost revenue from delaying launch.
Which of the following involves the least consumer pain?
pseudo sale
In the ________________ approach, the buyer must make a purchase under controlled conditions since the product has not been released for regular sale.
controlled sale
The following IS NOT AN example of controlled sale techniques:
simulated test marketing.
The speculative sales method is useful when:
-industrial firms have close relationships with key buyers.

-the product is technical and produced by a competent firm needing only minor market input.

-the venture carries very low risk.

-the item is new and key diagnostics are needed.
Simulated test marketing may be used to gain estimates of __________________ needed to turn A-T-A-R into a sales forecast:
trial/repeat purchasing
The __________________ model is able to produce both an A-T-A-R and preference-based forecast, and compare the two to produce market share predictions.
The latest version of simulated test marketing is the ________________--which makes th process even faster, easier, and less expensive.
visionary shopper
Direct marketing tests offer the advantage of:

-rapid feedback.

-low cost.

-ease of testing multiple variations.
In the _______________ approach, each store in the test is treated as a "minicity".
Controlled-distribution scanner markets are characterized by:
-cable TV interrupt privileges.

-a full record of all media going into the home.

-family-by-family purchasing.

-A 95 percent record of all store sales for tested items.
Info Scan is best described as a(n):
method of market test design/data gathering.
Test marketing:
-can be used to evaluate the realities of a national distribution.

-relies heavily upon the identification of representative samples.

-is increasingly used to fine tune the marketing plan.

-can, at best, reduce--not eliminate--the risk of failure.
Yhe following statement about test marketing IS NOT TRUE:
the results are accurate and projectable.
Roll outs:
-have surpassed test marketing in use and popularity.

-do not rely on "representative" areas, but areas the firm thinks are best.

-make no attempt to hide the launch effort.
Rollouts still involve risks because:
-investment in a new production facility is often required.

-fast competitors still have the ability to "leapfrog".

-availability of desirable distributors is not guaranteed.

-rollouts do not generate the volume of publicity provided by a national launch.