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56 Cards in this Set

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How long should stage 2 labor last?
< 30m
Foals should stand and nurse w/n __, preferably w/n __. If not, it's an __.
3hrs
1hr
EMERGENCY
T/F If a mare is in labor and she is not progressing, you should give her more time.
F = EMERGENCY
How many times per hour do foals typically nurse?
7
When is a new foal exam normally performed?
@ 12-24hr of age
During the new foal exam, "foal-o-gram", what systems should be examined?
All of them
Describe the HR progression of a foal.
Begins at 40-80bpm
Then elevates to 120-150 bpm
Drops to I80-100 bpm
Is a respiratory sinus arrhythemia normal in a foal? What about other arrhythemias and their clinical significance?
Yes - if they are alive ;-)
+/- other arrhythemias - signficance depends on CS
What murmur is commonly found in foals? When are PDAs normal?
Holosystolic murmor that is NOT a PDA - likely physiologic

PDA - normal 7-10d, unless other CS of Dz
What is the normal HR of an adult horse?
40bpm
What is the respiratory rate @ birth? W/n an hour?
60-80 breaths/min
30 breaths/min
T/F Very loud lung sounds are normal in a foal. Explain why or why not.
T - d/t decreased body wall thickness
T/F Slight crackle in ventral lung fields is normal in a foal.
False
T/F Flared nostrils and abdominal component are more important to respiration than auscultation
T
What 3 things should you LOOK/FEEL for during the respiratory portion of NFE.
What Dx aids can you utalize? (2)
Palpate thorax for rib fractures
Brown tinged nasal exudate - mechonium aspiration = pneumonia
Milk from nose - cleft palate or weak suck reflex
US (for hernia or hemothorax) , Rads
During the Urogenital System poriton of NFE, what 2 things should you be concerned about for colts >> fillies.
Both testicles descended at birth + in scrotum
Colts rupture their bladders more often than fillies
What breeds are a particular risk for inguinal hernias? Tx?
Draft Horses & Standardbred

Correct by manual reduction several times/day x first few days of life
3CS of ruptured bladder in foals
Straining to urinate
Pass only small amounts @ short intervals
Tail elevated and back hollowed out
Is the small defect 4-8cm (approx 2 fingers width) in the body wall normally present at birth. What is this called?
Yes
Umbilicus
When does the umbilicus usually close?
2-3d
2 possible problems with the umbilicus? Dx test?
Patent Urachus - draining urine
Enlargement of umbilical stalk - possible infection

US of umbilicus
Prevention of infection of the umbilicus? (1)
Weak betadine or chlorahexadine dip
3 types of angular limb deformities?
Valgus/Varus
Collapsed carpus/tarsus
Windswept
3 problems of axial skeleton?
Scoliosis
Lordosis
Kyphosis
2 types of Contractural Deformities
SDF/DDF tendon (m. not tendon contracts - fyi)
Joint Capsuleseptic joints
7 types of non-facial Musculoskeletal System problems.
Angular Limb Deformities
Axial Skeleton
Contractural Deformitites
Physeal Injuries
Brachial Plexus Injuries
Gastrocnemius Rupture
Luxations
How is the brachial plexus often injured?
dystocia
What problem do "normal" mini horses appear to have?
hydrocephalus
What's "wry" nose? What is the issue?
nose off to one side - difficulty nursing
What 3 big parts should be examined during the opthalmic portion of a NFE. List Common Problems of Each Part (1,2,3)
Eyelids - Entropions
Anterior Chamber - Hyphema, hypion
Eye -
Cornea - ulcers
Lens - Sutures lines, persistent hyaloid
Retina - detachments, vascular distruptions to optic disc
What must pass thru the foals GI w/n the first few hours? What CS would you see? What would you find on PE? How would you Tx?
Mechonium

Straining w/tail elevated and back arched - short, frequent attempts to nurse

Ausculatation - sounds every 20-30s

Pain meds; stomach tube is difficult
What would you likely find on percussion of the intestines in a foal?
gas filled areas
Why would passing a nasogastric tube be difficult in the foal?
depressed swallowing reflex
What "AbN" findings are normal in the foal's neuro exam? (5) What is actually AbN? What is the likely cause? (2)
Vestibular System - normally jerky movement
Ocular Reflexes - normally slower than in adult, menance may be absent
Swallowing reflex - depressed
Foals are hyperreflexic to stimuli until several weeks old
Gait - ataxic, circling

Abnormal Vocalizations - can't find mare = "Dummy Foal" or Blind
T/F Hemogram values of foals are significantly diff from adults in first few weeks
T
In the foal what does this mean?

Inc BUN/Creatine = __
Inc GGT = __
Inc All Liver Enzymes = __
Kidney problem
Normally elevated to some degree
Liver problem
TP should be > __. Why?
6 = IgG should be Inc
When is the best time to give Colostrum?
THE SOONER THE BETTER - MUST RECEIVE HIGH QUALITY W/N 12 HRS
When should IgG be measured?
18-30hrs after birth
What should the urine specific gravity of a foal be?
1050
2 ways to test for passive transfer?
ELISA for equine IgG
Radial Immunoassay
In evaluating the SNAP test....

Foal A has snap test result of 900 mg/dl of IgG. What does that mean?

Foal B has a 550 mg/dl IgG. What does that mean?

Foal C has a IgG of 390. You guessed it! WTF does that mean?
A - normal (>800 mg/dl)
B - partial failure transfer (>400 but <800 mg/dl)
C - failure of passive transfer (<400 mg/dl)
What do you do for the FPT and the PFPT foals, how does time affect it?
Colostrum - orally, if <12-24hrs
Equine serum - oral
Lyophilized IgG - oral
IV plasma transfer - only option from 18-24 hrs
Why might a client be hesitent for opt for IV plasma transfer for a foal? What would you tell them?
IV plasma transfer is = $250/L (FPT = 2-3L Tx; PFPT = 1L Tx)

No plasma = "wait and see" = 3K-5K Tx
What confirmational issues might the mare have? What might she need supplemented with?
Poor perineal conformation

Progesterone - placenta does produce until 5m
Nutritional - not fat/skinny mare
Describe the vacc protocols of prepartum mares
1m prior - F/R, EWT, WNV, PHF, +/- botulism (btw, i have no idea what F/R is... if you do let me know :-)

8,9, 10 m - Rotavirus

5, 7, 9m - EHV-1, EHV-4

Regular Deworming schedule and w/n 24hr of foaling
What parasite are you trying to prevent at the 24hr w/n foaling deworming? Who are you protecting?
Strongloid Westeri - horomone response = travels to mammary gland to infect foal

Foal
What dzs are you most concerned with during foalhood? (8)
WNV
Tetanus
EEE/WEE/VEE
Influenza
Rhinophneumonitis
PHF
Stangles
Rabies
How would you modify the vacc schedule of a foal from a mare who was vaccinated/unvacc for tetanus? flu? rabies? encephalities?
Tetanus -
NonVacc = Antitoxin @ birth.. followed w/toxoid vacc
Vacc = toxid at 6 m, followed w/toxoid

Then annually + at time of wound, sx or hoof abcess

Flu- (killed vacc, its diff for mod live)
NonVacc = 1st dose @ 6m
Vacc = 1st dose @ 9m

Rabies -
NonVacc - 1st dose@ 3-4m
Vacc - 1st dose @ 6m

Encephalities-
NonVacc- 1st dose @ 3-4m
Vacc- 1st dose @ 6m
Why are there diff protocals for the encephalities?
High Risk Vs. Low Risk
Diff first dose of mod live vs. killed flu vacc
Killed given earlier (6-9m, depending on mare's vacc status)

Live - 1st dose @ 11m
What rhinopnemonities do you vacc for? (2)
EHV-1
EHV-4
Do you vacc for PHF?
yup
What are you options for the Strangles Vacc? (2) Diff when inital dose is given?
Injectable - 4-6m
Intranasal - 6-9m
When should you begin deworming foal? What should you use? Like which products? What if they are older and have never been dewormed?
3-4m
Less toxic products = Panacur, Strongid
Older = use 1/2 dose for first 2x
What happen to a dummy foal?
He took Weisboro's Test...

He had an hypoxic/ischemic injury - i have that he was born normal, but idk... you've been warned :-P