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39 Cards in this Set

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Two primary rehabilitative goals in sports medicine.
1) prevention of injuries
2) safe return of an injury to the previous level of competition
Rehabilitation approach (5)
1) ROM
2) flexibility
3) strength
4) functional training
5) reconditioning
ROM is influenced by...(5)
1) body congruence
2) joint capsule
3) ligamentous structure
4) muscles
5) tendons
Passive ROM
ATC moves an athletes body through the ROM and the athlete relaxes and produces no muscle contraction
Active assisted ROM
ATC and athlete move body through ROM together
Active ROM
When an athlete can move through an entire ROM without assistance
Flexibility
refers to the ability to lengthen tissue that has been shortened
- the ability to move through the full ROM without restriction
Three types of stretching
1) static
2) ballistic
3) dynamic
Static stretching:
What is it and general guidelines
- slow, isolated stretch

- athlete should be relaxed, position must be entered slowly, stretch should produce a comfortable sensation, should last 20-30 seconds
Ballistic stretching
- when a specified muscle is isolated and quickly stretched and relaxed repetitively
- uses momentum of movement to force limb beyond normal range
- not recommended
Dynamic Stretching
- involves moving body and gradually increasing speed, reach, or both
- consits of controlled swings that takes limb to full ROM
Factors that limit flexibility (7)
1) body structures
2) tissue approximation
3) excessive fat
4) muscle and tendon lengths
5) connective tissue
6) scarring and contractures
7) skin
Proprioception
body's ability to get info to the brain in response to a stimulus
- without proper proprioception, the body won't be able to get the right muscles to fire at the correct time
Kinesthetic Awareness
body's ability to sense the position of its limbs at any moment
Areas of resistance training (3)
1) muscular strength
2) muscular power
3) muscular endurance
Muscular strength
the ability of the muscle to generate force at a given velocity
Muscular power
the product of force and velocity and represents the amount of work a muscle can produce per unit of time
Muscular endurance
the ability of a skeletal muscle or group of muscles to continue contracting over a long period
Methods of strengthening muscles (3)
1) isometric
2) isotonic
3) isokinetic
Isometric
muscular contraction without associated movement of the joint or limb on which the muscle is set
When to use isometric: (3)
1) early stages of rehab
2) when the force that a muscle produces isn't enough on it's own
3) athletes who cannot perform isotonic exercises
Isotonic

(concentric contraction)
(eccentric contraction)
muscle length shortens and extends and a joint moves through a range of motion against a constant resistance

concentric: when a muscle shortens
eccentric: when a muscle lengthens

Ex: barbell, dumbells, etc.
Isokinetic
equipment provides an equivalent resistance the entire time
- provide muscular overload at a constant preset speed

Ex: cybex
Manual Resistance
effective for strengthening in rehab
- requires no equipment
Variable Resistance
- machine that matches the resistance to the strength of the muscles throughout the entire ROM

Ex: bicep curl machine
Open Kinetic Chain Exercise
when foot or hand are not in contact with the ground or supporting surface. The distal end of the extremity is freely moving
Closed Kinetic Exercise
*more widely used
when foot or hand are in contact with the ground or supporting surface
Functional Training
comprehensive training approach on sound scientific principles
Sport specific function
rehab program is not complete until the athlete is fully prepared to meet the demands of their sport
Mechanism:
- Valgus force
- elbow hyperextension
Clinical Presentation:
- pain on active/resistive movement
- pain along medial aspect of elbow
- loss of function
- inability to grasp things
Treatment:
- ice
- 90 flexed sling
- modify activity after gaining full ROM
Risk factors:
- year round throwing
- seasonal overuse
- early breaking pitches
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Sprain
Mechanism:
- repetitive microtrauma to insertion of extensor muscles of lateral epicondyle
- backhand stroke in tennis or golf
Clinical Presentation:
- aching pain in region of lateral epicodyle
- pain worsens and weakness in wrist and hand develop
- pain with resistive wrist extension
Treatment:
- rest
- ice
- elbow strap
- anti-inflammatory meds
Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)
Mechanism:
- overuse
- sudden vigrous supintating movement
- repeated forceful flexion of the wrist
- throwing a curve ball
Clinical Presentation:
- point tenderness of the medial epicondyle
- swelling
- pain produced with forceful flexion or extension
- passive movement = no pain, active movement = pain
Treatment:
- rest
- ice
- stretching
Medial Epicondylitis (Little League Elbow)
Mechanism:
- direct trauma from fall
- acute or chronic
Clinical Presentation:
- pain
- swelling of the olcranon
- loss of function
- possible redness
- possible warmth
Treatment:
- ice
- compression
- protective padding
Olecranon Bursitis
Mechanism:
- direct trauma
Clinical Presentation:
- pain
- loss of function
- numbness or tingling down 4th/5th finger
Treatment:
- ice
- refer to neurologist
Ulnar Nerve Contusion
"Funny Bone"
Mechanism:
- fall on outstretched hand with elbow extended
- severe twist while flexed
Clinical Presentation:
- severe pain
- loss of function
- marked deformity
- swelling
Treatment:
- immobilize
- reduce
- all active ROM during rehab
Elbow dislocation
Mechanism:
- fall on flexed elbow or from a direct blow
- fracture can occur in 1+ bones
Clinical Presentation:
- swelling
- muscle spasm
- hemorrhaging
Treatment:
- ice
- sling
- doctor
Elbow fracture
Mechanism:
- common in youth- due to falls and direct blows
Clinical Presentation:
- audible crack or pop
- moderate to severe pain
- swelling
- ecchymosis
- possible crepitus
Treatment:
- ice
- immobolize
- possible surgical intervention
Forearm Fracture
Mechanism:
- occurs in lower end of radius or ulna
- fall on outstretched hand, forcing radius and ulna into hyperextension
Clinical Presentation:
- forward displacement of radius causing visible deformity
- extensive bleeding/swelling
- tendons may be torn/avulsed
Treatment:
- ice
- splint wrist
- can keep an athlete out for 1-2 months
Colles' Fracture
Mechanism:
- overuse
- falling on hyperextended wrist, violent flexion or torsion
Clinical Presentation:
- active movement/stress of joint = pain
- point tenderness over ligaments
- difficulty with movement
Treatment:
- ice
- tape
- orthopedist
Wrist Sprain