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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The neuromuscular junction is the synapse between the terminal end of a ____ and a skeletal muscle fiber.
alpha motor neuron
Ach is formed from ____, a common metabolite of the mitochondria and ____ a common turnover product of membrane lipids, with the enzyme _______.
acetyl-CoA, choline, choline acetyl transferase
Ach is degraded by acetylcholinesterase that has a ____ residue in its active site, into ____ and ____, which are taken into the nerve terminal.
serine, choline, acetate
___ is the major transmitter in the PNS, but is also found in the in the midbrain reticular formation, _____ and basal forebrain of the ____.
Ach, basal ganglia, CNS
Cholingeric synapses can have ___ receptors which are _____ ion channels, or _____ receptors that are linked to ___ and ___ proteins.
nicotinic, ligand gated, muscarinic, Gi, Gq
____ is an antagonist agent that blocks the nicotinic receptors in the neuromuscular junction, while ____ is an agonist that stimulates the receptors in the CNS.
curare, nicotine, agonist
___ inhibit acetylcholinesterase by irreversibly reacting with the ___ residue in the active site, but ____ can be used to reduce the effect of Ach.
organophosphates, serine, atropine sulfate
Atropine is a _____ antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, therefore ___ the activity of the parasympathetic system.
competitive, reducing
The biogenic amines are produced from the aromatic amino acids ____,____, and ____.
Tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine
Tyrosine is converted into the catecholamines, ____, ____, and ____.
dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
In the cytoplasm, L-Tyrosine is converted into L-DOPA by ____.
tyrosine hydroxylase
L-DOPA is converted in the cytoplasm into dopamine by ____.
DOPA decarboxylase
Dopamine is converted into norepinephrine in the _____ by _____.
adrenal medulla, dopamine beta hydroxylase
Norepinephrine is converted into epinephrine in the adrenal medulla through phenylethanolamine methytransferase and ____.
The inactivation of catecholines is by ___ dependent high infinity uptake back into the nerve terminal.
Catecholamines inactivation after uptake is done by deamination by _____ and methylation by ____.
MAO, COMT (catecholmethytransferase)
Tricyclic antidepressants inhibit synaptic uptake of ___ and ____.
NE, 5-HT
SSRI's decrease the uptake of ____, and therefore have less side effects than ____ which also inhibits NE.
serotonin, tricyclic antidepressants
Cocaine inhibits the uptake of ____, ____ and ____.
dopamine, norepinephrine, 5-HT
Amphetamines release cytoplasmic ____, ____, and ____.
NE, dopamine, 5-HT
Neuroleptics have an antagonist effect on ____ receptors.
MAO-A degrades ____ and MAO-B degrades ____, and both degrade _____ and are found on the ____.
serotonin, dopamine, NE, mitochondrial membrane
The rate limiting step in the inactivation of the catechomlamines and 5-HT is the ____.
uptake of NT
Glutamate is turned into ____ by ____.
GABA, glutamate decarboxylase
___ and ___ are the major excitatory NTs troughout the CNS.
glumtamate, asparate
___ is the major inhibitory transmitter in the brain, while ____ is the major inhibitory transmitter in the spine and brain stem
GABA, glycine
____ amino acid transmitters are always excitatory and over 50% of the CNS syapses contain them.
GABA-A receptors open ___ channels in the brain.
NMDA glutamate receptors open ____ or ___ channels.
Na+, Ca++
____ receptors open sodium channels in the neuromuscular junction, autonomic ganglia, and brain.
____ receptors open chloride channels in the brain stem and spinal cord, and are blocked by the poison ___.
glycine, strychnine
Ionotropic receptors are involved in ____ transmission and are ____ gated ion channels.
fast, ligand
Metabotropic receptors are involved in ___ transmission and are ____ coupled receptors.
slow, secondary messenger
NE receptors that are post junctional and can cause contraction of smooth muscles.
alpha 1 adrenoreceptors
NE receptors that are inhibitory on parasympathetic post ganglions and sympathetic junctions.
alpha 2 adrenoreceptors
NE receptors that are post junctional and can increase HR.
beta 1 adrenoreceptors
___ receptors bind epinephrine prejunctionally and promote the release of NE.
beta 2
____ receptors inhibit smooth muscle contraction.
beta 2
____ and ____ are neuropeptides that bind to opiate receptors.
enkephalin, endorphins