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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Acute pyogenic meningitis is usually caused by _
Aseptic meningitis is usually caused by _
Chronic meningitis is usually caused by _
TB, spirochetes, cryptococcus
Which organism causes acute meningitis among young adults and adolescents
N. meningitidis
Spinal tab yields _ in acute meningitis
- Cloudy or frankly purulent CSF
- Increased pressure
- Increased neutrophils
- Increased CSF protein concentration
- Markedly decreased glucose concentration
Waterhouse- Friedrichsen syndrome results from _

How does it present?

Its common with what types of meningitis?
- Meningitis associated septicemia

- Cutaneous petechiae + hemorrhagic infarctions of adrenal glands

- Meningococcal and Pneumococcal meningitis
In aseptic meningitis there is absence of _
Any recognizable organisms
Spinal tab yields _ in aseptic meningitis
- CSF glucose near normal
- Protein only moderately elevated
- Increased lymphocytes
Name organism often responsible for aseptic meningitis
- ENTEROVIRUS - polio, coxsackie, echovirus
Which drugs can cause " drug induced aseptic meningitis"
NSAIDS and antibiotics
Spinal tab will show _ in aseptic drug induced meningitis
- CSF is sterile
- Increased neutrophils
- Glucose normal
- Increased CSF protein
Which type of necrosis occurs in the brain
Which organisms cause chronic bacterial meningoencephalitis ?
Lyme disease
Which intrauterine infection can cause congenital malformations and viral meningoencephalitis
HSV I infection of the brain occurs most often in _

Most common signs and symptoms are _

Most often begins in _
Children and young adults

Mood and memory changes

Temporal lobe ( and orbital gyri of frontal lobes)
Rabies virus enters CNS in _ fashion

Signs and symptoms?

S&S - extraordinary excitability where light touch causes pain - seizures, contraction of pharyngeal muscles on swallowing - foaming at the mouth, aversion to swallowing (hydrophobia) - death from respiratory center failure
PML progressive viral encephalitis is caused by _
JC polyomavirus - immunocompromised individuals
Transmissible spongiform encephalitis is called _
Creutzfeld Jacob disease
Primary objectives of general anesthesia
- Unconsciousness
- Analgesia
- Amnesia
- Skeletal muscle relaxation
- Loss of reflexes
Stages of anesthesia
I - ANALGESIA - inhibit pain transmission at spinothalamic tract

II - EXCITEMENT - blockade of brain inhibitory pathways - patient appear delirious, amnesic, with irregular respiration - possible retching, vomitting, incontinence

III - SURGICAL ANESTHESIA - regular respiration restored, skeletal muscles relax, pupils become fixed

IV - Medullary Depression - death occurs
Thiopental IV circumvents which stage of anesthesia ?
Stage II
Inhalation anesthetics are used primarily for _
Maintenance anesthesia after induction with IV agent
Name inhalation anesthetics
Depth of anesthesia determined by _
Concentration of anesthetic drug in CNS
Rate of induction of anesthesia determined by _
Uptake and distribution of anesthetic drug
Replacing normal lung gases with anesthetic mixture - once partial pressure builds within lungs, anesthetic uptake from lungs begins - this is called _
Alveolar wash in
Solubility of anesthetic in blood is determined by _
Blood gas partition coefficient
N2O has low or high blood solubility?

Induction - rapid or slow?

RAPID induction
Halothane has low or high blood solubility?

Induction - rapid or slow?
HIGH solubility

SLOW induction and recovery
Lowest perfused tissue is _
Fat - also bone, cartilage and ligaments